Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs

Clinical relevance and methodological aspects

Tamara Phillips, Raúl Pastor, Angela C. Scibelli, Cheryl Reed, Ernesto Tarragón

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of abused drugs provides a behavioral measure thought to reflect underlying neural adaptations to repeated drug exposure. Neurochemical measures have provided information about the specific neural systems impacted and altered by repeated drug exposure. In pre-clinical studies, sensitized animals exhibit facilitated acquisition of drug self-administration and preference for cues associated with past drug experiences. This has suggested a role for sensitization in the development of drug abuse and in relapse. In humans, self-reports of sensitized vigor and energy levels have been described that may relate to the more direct measurements of locomotor sensitization in animals. Described in this chapter are methods used to measure psychomotor sensitization in mice, which are partially dependent upon the drug under investigation. The advantages to the use of mice in pre-clinical research are (1) that they readily sensitize to all drugs of abuse, (2) many methods have been developed for studying other aspects of their behavior that may be related to sensitization, and (3) they are an excellent species for genetic investigations aimed at determining susceptibility to behavioral sensitization and thus neuroadaptations related to drug abuse. Factors to consider when designing a study of drug-induced psychomotor sensitization include dose, number of treatments, frequency or interval between treatments and challenge, and duration of testing. First, a measure of baseline level of activity should be obtained, followed by measurement of the initial drug effect, measures of the change in initial effect with repeated administration, and a subsequent measure of baseline to see how it may have changed after repeated drug testing. Depending upon the goal of the research, a drug withdrawal period may be desirable, followed by another drug challenge to determine whether sensitization is still present. Such a withdrawal or "incubation" period has been instated to allow for the establishment of long-term central nervous system changes that may accompany sensitization in studies of mechanism. The recommended frequency of dosing is dependent upon characteristics of the drug, particularly its clearance rate. More intermittent schedules of administration are particularly important for inducing robust sensitization to classical psychostimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine. The recommended duration of testing is influenced by the duration of drug effect, but data should be collected in isolated time units so that the time response curve can be examined. Finally, associative conditioning and stress-related factors can have large impacts on sensitization and should be carefully considered in all aspects of the research design, including whether drug treatment is linked to the test environment or not, density of housing, and specifics of handling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeuromethods
Pages267-305
Number of pages39
Volume50
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

Publication series

NameNeuromethods
Volume50
ISSN (Print)08932336
ISSN (Electronic)19406045

Fingerprint

Pharmaceutical Preparations
Substance-Related Disorders
Animals
Testing
Drug therapy
Self Administration
Methamphetamine
Street Drugs
Neurology
Cocaine
Research
Self Report
Cues
Electron energy levels
Appointments and Schedules
Research Design
Central Nervous System
Recurrence
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • addiction
  • conditioned sensitization
  • dopamine
  • Drug reward
  • locomotor activation
  • mesolimbic
  • neural adaptation
  • psychomotor sensitization
  • relapse
  • stereotypy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Phillips, T., Pastor, R., Scibelli, A. C., Reed, C., & Tarragón, E. (2011). Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs: Clinical relevance and methodological aspects. In Neuromethods (Vol. 50, pp. 267-305). (Neuromethods; Vol. 50). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11

Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs : Clinical relevance and methodological aspects. / Phillips, Tamara; Pastor, Raúl; Scibelli, Angela C.; Reed, Cheryl; Tarragón, Ernesto.

Neuromethods. Vol. 50 2011. p. 267-305 (Neuromethods; Vol. 50).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Phillips, T, Pastor, R, Scibelli, AC, Reed, C & Tarragón, E 2011, Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs: Clinical relevance and methodological aspects. in Neuromethods. vol. 50, Neuromethods, vol. 50, pp. 267-305. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11
Phillips T, Pastor R, Scibelli AC, Reed C, Tarragón E. Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs: Clinical relevance and methodological aspects. In Neuromethods. Vol. 50. 2011. p. 267-305. (Neuromethods). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11
Phillips, Tamara ; Pastor, Raúl ; Scibelli, Angela C. ; Reed, Cheryl ; Tarragón, Ernesto. / Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs : Clinical relevance and methodological aspects. Neuromethods. Vol. 50 2011. pp. 267-305 (Neuromethods).
@inbook{0cf61003bede4eac8a33ef29176fdde2,
title = "Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs: Clinical relevance and methodological aspects",
abstract = "Sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of abused drugs provides a behavioral measure thought to reflect underlying neural adaptations to repeated drug exposure. Neurochemical measures have provided information about the specific neural systems impacted and altered by repeated drug exposure. In pre-clinical studies, sensitized animals exhibit facilitated acquisition of drug self-administration and preference for cues associated with past drug experiences. This has suggested a role for sensitization in the development of drug abuse and in relapse. In humans, self-reports of sensitized vigor and energy levels have been described that may relate to the more direct measurements of locomotor sensitization in animals. Described in this chapter are methods used to measure psychomotor sensitization in mice, which are partially dependent upon the drug under investigation. The advantages to the use of mice in pre-clinical research are (1) that they readily sensitize to all drugs of abuse, (2) many methods have been developed for studying other aspects of their behavior that may be related to sensitization, and (3) they are an excellent species for genetic investigations aimed at determining susceptibility to behavioral sensitization and thus neuroadaptations related to drug abuse. Factors to consider when designing a study of drug-induced psychomotor sensitization include dose, number of treatments, frequency or interval between treatments and challenge, and duration of testing. First, a measure of baseline level of activity should be obtained, followed by measurement of the initial drug effect, measures of the change in initial effect with repeated administration, and a subsequent measure of baseline to see how it may have changed after repeated drug testing. Depending upon the goal of the research, a drug withdrawal period may be desirable, followed by another drug challenge to determine whether sensitization is still present. Such a withdrawal or {"}incubation{"} period has been instated to allow for the establishment of long-term central nervous system changes that may accompany sensitization in studies of mechanism. The recommended frequency of dosing is dependent upon characteristics of the drug, particularly its clearance rate. More intermittent schedules of administration are particularly important for inducing robust sensitization to classical psychostimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine. The recommended duration of testing is influenced by the duration of drug effect, but data should be collected in isolated time units so that the time response curve can be examined. Finally, associative conditioning and stress-related factors can have large impacts on sensitization and should be carefully considered in all aspects of the research design, including whether drug treatment is linked to the test environment or not, density of housing, and specifics of handling.",
keywords = "addiction, conditioned sensitization, dopamine, Drug reward, locomotor activation, mesolimbic, neural adaptation, psychomotor sensitization, relapse, stereotypy",
author = "Tamara Phillips and Ra{\'u}l Pastor and Scibelli, {Angela C.} and Cheryl Reed and Ernesto Tarrag{\'o}n",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781607618829",
volume = "50",
series = "Neuromethods",
pages = "267--305",
booktitle = "Neuromethods",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs

T2 - Clinical relevance and methodological aspects

AU - Phillips, Tamara

AU - Pastor, Raúl

AU - Scibelli, Angela C.

AU - Reed, Cheryl

AU - Tarragón, Ernesto

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of abused drugs provides a behavioral measure thought to reflect underlying neural adaptations to repeated drug exposure. Neurochemical measures have provided information about the specific neural systems impacted and altered by repeated drug exposure. In pre-clinical studies, sensitized animals exhibit facilitated acquisition of drug self-administration and preference for cues associated with past drug experiences. This has suggested a role for sensitization in the development of drug abuse and in relapse. In humans, self-reports of sensitized vigor and energy levels have been described that may relate to the more direct measurements of locomotor sensitization in animals. Described in this chapter are methods used to measure psychomotor sensitization in mice, which are partially dependent upon the drug under investigation. The advantages to the use of mice in pre-clinical research are (1) that they readily sensitize to all drugs of abuse, (2) many methods have been developed for studying other aspects of their behavior that may be related to sensitization, and (3) they are an excellent species for genetic investigations aimed at determining susceptibility to behavioral sensitization and thus neuroadaptations related to drug abuse. Factors to consider when designing a study of drug-induced psychomotor sensitization include dose, number of treatments, frequency or interval between treatments and challenge, and duration of testing. First, a measure of baseline level of activity should be obtained, followed by measurement of the initial drug effect, measures of the change in initial effect with repeated administration, and a subsequent measure of baseline to see how it may have changed after repeated drug testing. Depending upon the goal of the research, a drug withdrawal period may be desirable, followed by another drug challenge to determine whether sensitization is still present. Such a withdrawal or "incubation" period has been instated to allow for the establishment of long-term central nervous system changes that may accompany sensitization in studies of mechanism. The recommended frequency of dosing is dependent upon characteristics of the drug, particularly its clearance rate. More intermittent schedules of administration are particularly important for inducing robust sensitization to classical psychostimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine. The recommended duration of testing is influenced by the duration of drug effect, but data should be collected in isolated time units so that the time response curve can be examined. Finally, associative conditioning and stress-related factors can have large impacts on sensitization and should be carefully considered in all aspects of the research design, including whether drug treatment is linked to the test environment or not, density of housing, and specifics of handling.

AB - Sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of abused drugs provides a behavioral measure thought to reflect underlying neural adaptations to repeated drug exposure. Neurochemical measures have provided information about the specific neural systems impacted and altered by repeated drug exposure. In pre-clinical studies, sensitized animals exhibit facilitated acquisition of drug self-administration and preference for cues associated with past drug experiences. This has suggested a role for sensitization in the development of drug abuse and in relapse. In humans, self-reports of sensitized vigor and energy levels have been described that may relate to the more direct measurements of locomotor sensitization in animals. Described in this chapter are methods used to measure psychomotor sensitization in mice, which are partially dependent upon the drug under investigation. The advantages to the use of mice in pre-clinical research are (1) that they readily sensitize to all drugs of abuse, (2) many methods have been developed for studying other aspects of their behavior that may be related to sensitization, and (3) they are an excellent species for genetic investigations aimed at determining susceptibility to behavioral sensitization and thus neuroadaptations related to drug abuse. Factors to consider when designing a study of drug-induced psychomotor sensitization include dose, number of treatments, frequency or interval between treatments and challenge, and duration of testing. First, a measure of baseline level of activity should be obtained, followed by measurement of the initial drug effect, measures of the change in initial effect with repeated administration, and a subsequent measure of baseline to see how it may have changed after repeated drug testing. Depending upon the goal of the research, a drug withdrawal period may be desirable, followed by another drug challenge to determine whether sensitization is still present. Such a withdrawal or "incubation" period has been instated to allow for the establishment of long-term central nervous system changes that may accompany sensitization in studies of mechanism. The recommended frequency of dosing is dependent upon characteristics of the drug, particularly its clearance rate. More intermittent schedules of administration are particularly important for inducing robust sensitization to classical psychostimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine. The recommended duration of testing is influenced by the duration of drug effect, but data should be collected in isolated time units so that the time response curve can be examined. Finally, associative conditioning and stress-related factors can have large impacts on sensitization and should be carefully considered in all aspects of the research design, including whether drug treatment is linked to the test environment or not, density of housing, and specifics of handling.

KW - addiction

KW - conditioned sensitization

KW - dopamine

KW - Drug reward

KW - locomotor activation

KW - mesolimbic

KW - neural adaptation

KW - psychomotor sensitization

KW - relapse

KW - stereotypy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77957914149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77957914149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11

DO - 10.1007/978-1-60761-883-6_11

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781607618829

VL - 50

T3 - Neuromethods

SP - 267

EP - 305

BT - Neuromethods

ER -