Automated Combinatorial Process for Nanofabrication of Structures Using Bioderivatized Nanoparticles

Dietrich Dehlinger, Benjamin Sullivan, Sadik Esener, Dalibor Hodko, Paul Swanson, Michael J. Heller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


A fully automated electronic microarray control system (Nanochip 400 System) was used to carry out a combinatorial process to determine optimal conditions for fabricating higher order three-dimensional nanoparticle structures. Structures with up to 40 layers of bioderivatized nanoparticles were fabricated on a 400-test site CMOS microarray using the automated Nanochip 400 System. Reconfigurable electric fields produced on the surface of the CMOS microarray device actively transport, concentrate, and promote binding of 40 nm biotin- and streptavidin-derivatized nanoparticles to selected test sites on the microarray surface. The overall fabrication process including nanoparticle reagent delivery to the microarray device, electronic control of the CMOS microarray and the optical/fluorescent detection, and monitoring of nanoparticle layering are entirely controlled by the Nanochip 400 System. The automated nanoparticle layering process takes about 2 minutes per layer, with 10–20 seconds required for the electronic addressing and binding of nanoparticles, and roughly 60 seconds for washing. The addressing and building process is monitored by changes in fluorescence intensity as each nanoparticle layer is deposited. The final multilayered 3D structures are about 2 μm in thickness and 55 μm in diameter. Multilayer nanoparticle structures and control sites on the microarray were verified by SEM analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Laboratory Automation
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • combinatorial process
  • layer-by-layer
  • microarray
  • nanofabrication
  • nanoparticles
  • self assembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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