Background: The introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine has raised significant ethical, economic, and scientific controversies. Introduction: Because an explicit goal of AI is to perform processes previously reserved for human clinicians and other health care personnel, there is justified concern about the impact on patient safety, efficacy, equity, and liability. Discussion: Systems for computer-assisted and fully automated detection, triage, and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from retinal images show great variation in design, level of autonomy, and intended use. Moreover, the degree to which these systems have been evaluated and validated is heterogeneous. We use the term DR AI system as a general term for any system that interprets retinal images with at least some degree of autonomy from a human grader. We put forth these standardized descriptors to form a means to categorize systems for computer-assisted and fully automated detection, triage, and diagnosis of DR. The components of the categorization system include level of device autonomy, intended use, level of evidence for diagnostic accuracy, and system design. Conclusion: There is currently minimal empirical basis to assert that certain combinations of autonomy, accuracy, or intended use are better or more appropriate than any other. Therefore, at the current stage of development of this document, we have been descriptive rather than prescriptive, and we treat the different categorizations as independent and organized along multiple axes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Informatics
- Health Information Management