Attentional versus motor inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

Laurie A. Carr, Joel Nigg, John M. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Faulty inhibition is theorized to be a central feature in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear whether inhibitory impairments encompass both motoric and attentional domains. Further, characterization of inhibitory deficits in adults with ADHD is needed. We experimentally assessed adults who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD and a subgroup who had partially remitted. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) subtype effects were also examined. Motoric inhibition was assessed with the antisaccade task, and attentional inhibition was assessed with the attentional blink (AB) task. Antisaccade results replicated prior findings of extended latencies and increased anticipatory saccades in ADHD. Errors, however, appeared to be epiphenomenal to ADHD as they were absent when symptoms had partially remitted. Anticipatory saccades appeared as potential core problems that remained even when symptoms had improved. Differential response patterns were found for predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes, with the latter showing increasing anticipatory movements with increasing fixation time. In the AB task, ADHD groups committed more errors but showed no convincing evidence of an abnormal blink. These results demonstrate clear effects on motoric inhibition but not attentional inhibition in adults with ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)430-441
Number of pages12
JournalNeuropsychology
Volume20
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Attentional Blink
Saccades
Inhibition (Psychology)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Adult
  • Antisaccade
  • Attentional blink
  • Inhibition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Cite this

Attentional versus motor inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. / Carr, Laurie A.; Nigg, Joel; Henderson, John M.

In: Neuropsychology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 07.2006, p. 430-441.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carr, Laurie A. ; Nigg, Joel ; Henderson, John M. / Attentional versus motor inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. In: Neuropsychology. 2006 ; Vol. 20, No. 4. pp. 430-441.
@article{5768f68b57074bec8112ce7f5518282c,
title = "Attentional versus motor inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder",
abstract = "Faulty inhibition is theorized to be a central feature in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear whether inhibitory impairments encompass both motoric and attentional domains. Further, characterization of inhibitory deficits in adults with ADHD is needed. We experimentally assessed adults who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD and a subgroup who had partially remitted. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) subtype effects were also examined. Motoric inhibition was assessed with the antisaccade task, and attentional inhibition was assessed with the attentional blink (AB) task. Antisaccade results replicated prior findings of extended latencies and increased anticipatory saccades in ADHD. Errors, however, appeared to be epiphenomenal to ADHD as they were absent when symptoms had partially remitted. Anticipatory saccades appeared as potential core problems that remained even when symptoms had improved. Differential response patterns were found for predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes, with the latter showing increasing anticipatory movements with increasing fixation time. In the AB task, ADHD groups committed more errors but showed no convincing evidence of an abnormal blink. These results demonstrate clear effects on motoric inhibition but not attentional inhibition in adults with ADHD.",
keywords = "ADHD, Adult, Antisaccade, Attentional blink, Inhibition",
author = "Carr, {Laurie A.} and Joel Nigg and Henderson, {John M.}",
year = "2006",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1037/0894-4105.20.4.430",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "20",
pages = "430--441",
journal = "Neuropsychology",
issn = "0894-4105",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Attentional versus motor inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

AU - Carr, Laurie A.

AU - Nigg, Joel

AU - Henderson, John M.

PY - 2006/7

Y1 - 2006/7

N2 - Faulty inhibition is theorized to be a central feature in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear whether inhibitory impairments encompass both motoric and attentional domains. Further, characterization of inhibitory deficits in adults with ADHD is needed. We experimentally assessed adults who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD and a subgroup who had partially remitted. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) subtype effects were also examined. Motoric inhibition was assessed with the antisaccade task, and attentional inhibition was assessed with the attentional blink (AB) task. Antisaccade results replicated prior findings of extended latencies and increased anticipatory saccades in ADHD. Errors, however, appeared to be epiphenomenal to ADHD as they were absent when symptoms had partially remitted. Anticipatory saccades appeared as potential core problems that remained even when symptoms had improved. Differential response patterns were found for predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes, with the latter showing increasing anticipatory movements with increasing fixation time. In the AB task, ADHD groups committed more errors but showed no convincing evidence of an abnormal blink. These results demonstrate clear effects on motoric inhibition but not attentional inhibition in adults with ADHD.

AB - Faulty inhibition is theorized to be a central feature in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear whether inhibitory impairments encompass both motoric and attentional domains. Further, characterization of inhibitory deficits in adults with ADHD is needed. We experimentally assessed adults who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD and a subgroup who had partially remitted. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) subtype effects were also examined. Motoric inhibition was assessed with the antisaccade task, and attentional inhibition was assessed with the attentional blink (AB) task. Antisaccade results replicated prior findings of extended latencies and increased anticipatory saccades in ADHD. Errors, however, appeared to be epiphenomenal to ADHD as they were absent when symptoms had partially remitted. Anticipatory saccades appeared as potential core problems that remained even when symptoms had improved. Differential response patterns were found for predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes, with the latter showing increasing anticipatory movements with increasing fixation time. In the AB task, ADHD groups committed more errors but showed no convincing evidence of an abnormal blink. These results demonstrate clear effects on motoric inhibition but not attentional inhibition in adults with ADHD.

KW - ADHD

KW - Adult

KW - Antisaccade

KW - Attentional blink

KW - Inhibition

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33746875932&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33746875932&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0894-4105.20.4.430

DO - 10.1037/0894-4105.20.4.430

M3 - Article

C2 - 16846261

AN - SCOPUS:33746875932

VL - 20

SP - 430

EP - 441

JO - Neuropsychology

JF - Neuropsychology

SN - 0894-4105

IS - 4

ER -