Association of blood cotinine level with cognitive and physical performance in non-smoking older adults

Wajiha Z. Akhtar, Elena Andresen, Michael B. Cannell, Xiaohui Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BackgroundStudies show that active smoking may be associated with cognitive decline. However, the consequence of secondhand smoke on cognitive and physical performance remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of secondhand smoke with cognitive performance and physical function using a population-based sample. Methods: Data of 2,542 non-smoking participants from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Secondhand smoke exposure level was estimated using blood cotinine concentrations. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and self-reported confusion/memory problems. Physical performance was analyzed using visual gait speed (m/s) and self-reported physical function. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. Results: In never smokers, cognitive performance score decreased by 2.03 points (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.00, -1.05) per one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. After adjusting for potential confounders, including diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and blood lead level, change in cognitive performance score was still statistically significant (-1.17 95%; CI: -2.32, -0.02). Similar trends were observed in former smokers. Gait speed decreased by 0.02. m/s for one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. This was evident in both never and former smokers. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders in former smokers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that secondhand smoke may contribute to cognitive decline in never and former smokers. Considering the cross-sectional design and the limitations of this study, the relationship warrants further assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-70
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume121
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2013

Fingerprint

Cotinine
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Smoke
smoke
Blood
blood
confidence interval
Logistic Models
Association reactions
Confidence Intervals
Confusion
health and nutrition
hypertension
diabetes
Nutrition Surveys
Nutrition
Medical problems
smoking
body mass
Logistics

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Cognition
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Older adults
  • Secondhand smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Association of blood cotinine level with cognitive and physical performance in non-smoking older adults. / Akhtar, Wajiha Z.; Andresen, Elena; Cannell, Michael B.; Xu, Xiaohui.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 121, 02.2013, p. 64-70.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a8f527100c0b4fe0befdda7361ead30c,
title = "Association of blood cotinine level with cognitive and physical performance in non-smoking older adults",
abstract = "BackgroundStudies show that active smoking may be associated with cognitive decline. However, the consequence of secondhand smoke on cognitive and physical performance remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of secondhand smoke with cognitive performance and physical function using a population-based sample. Methods: Data of 2,542 non-smoking participants from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Secondhand smoke exposure level was estimated using blood cotinine concentrations. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and self-reported confusion/memory problems. Physical performance was analyzed using visual gait speed (m/s) and self-reported physical function. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. Results: In never smokers, cognitive performance score decreased by 2.03 points (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): -3.00, -1.05) per one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. After adjusting for potential confounders, including diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and blood lead level, change in cognitive performance score was still statistically significant (-1.17 95{\%}; CI: -2.32, -0.02). Similar trends were observed in former smokers. Gait speed decreased by 0.02. m/s for one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. This was evident in both never and former smokers. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders in former smokers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that secondhand smoke may contribute to cognitive decline in never and former smokers. Considering the cross-sectional design and the limitations of this study, the relationship warrants further assessment.",
keywords = "Aging, Cognition, Environmental tobacco smoke, Older adults, Secondhand smoke",
author = "Akhtar, {Wajiha Z.} and Elena Andresen and Cannell, {Michael B.} and Xiaohui Xu",
year = "2013",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2012.10.013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "121",
pages = "64--70",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of blood cotinine level with cognitive and physical performance in non-smoking older adults

AU - Akhtar, Wajiha Z.

AU - Andresen, Elena

AU - Cannell, Michael B.

AU - Xu, Xiaohui

PY - 2013/2

Y1 - 2013/2

N2 - BackgroundStudies show that active smoking may be associated with cognitive decline. However, the consequence of secondhand smoke on cognitive and physical performance remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of secondhand smoke with cognitive performance and physical function using a population-based sample. Methods: Data of 2,542 non-smoking participants from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Secondhand smoke exposure level was estimated using blood cotinine concentrations. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and self-reported confusion/memory problems. Physical performance was analyzed using visual gait speed (m/s) and self-reported physical function. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. Results: In never smokers, cognitive performance score decreased by 2.03 points (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.00, -1.05) per one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. After adjusting for potential confounders, including diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and blood lead level, change in cognitive performance score was still statistically significant (-1.17 95%; CI: -2.32, -0.02). Similar trends were observed in former smokers. Gait speed decreased by 0.02. m/s for one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. This was evident in both never and former smokers. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders in former smokers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that secondhand smoke may contribute to cognitive decline in never and former smokers. Considering the cross-sectional design and the limitations of this study, the relationship warrants further assessment.

AB - BackgroundStudies show that active smoking may be associated with cognitive decline. However, the consequence of secondhand smoke on cognitive and physical performance remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of secondhand smoke with cognitive performance and physical function using a population-based sample. Methods: Data of 2,542 non-smoking participants from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Secondhand smoke exposure level was estimated using blood cotinine concentrations. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and self-reported confusion/memory problems. Physical performance was analyzed using visual gait speed (m/s) and self-reported physical function. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. Results: In never smokers, cognitive performance score decreased by 2.03 points (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.00, -1.05) per one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. After adjusting for potential confounders, including diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and blood lead level, change in cognitive performance score was still statistically significant (-1.17 95%; CI: -2.32, -0.02). Similar trends were observed in former smokers. Gait speed decreased by 0.02. m/s for one unit increase in log-transformed blood cotinine level. This was evident in both never and former smokers. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders in former smokers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that secondhand smoke may contribute to cognitive decline in never and former smokers. Considering the cross-sectional design and the limitations of this study, the relationship warrants further assessment.

KW - Aging

KW - Cognition

KW - Environmental tobacco smoke

KW - Older adults

KW - Secondhand smoke

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84873998674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84873998674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2012.10.013

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2012.10.013

M3 - Article

C2 - 23199696

AN - SCOPUS:84873998674

VL - 121

SP - 64

EP - 70

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

ER -