Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality

Robert T. Dess, Holly E. Hartman, Brandon A. Mahal, Payal D. Soni, William C. Jackson, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Christopher Amling, William J. Aronson, Christopher J. Kane, Martha K. Terris, Zachary S. Zumsteg, Santino Butler, Joseph R. Osborne, Todd M. Morgan, Rohit Mehra, Simpa S. Salami, Amar U. Kishan, Chenyang Wang, Edward M. Schaeffer, MacK Roach & 10 others Thomas M. Pisansky, William U. Shipley, Stephen J. Freedland, Howard M. Sandler, Susan Halabi, Felix Y. Feng, James J. Dignam, Paul L. Nguyen, Matthew J. Schipper, Daniel E. Spratt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance: Black men are more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. In men with similar stages of disease, the contribution of biological vs nonbiological differences to this observed disparity is unclear. Objective: To quantify the association of black race with long-term survival outcomes after controlling for known prognostic variables and access to care among men with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multiple-cohort study included updated individual patient-level data of men with clinical T1-4N0-1M0 prostate cancer from the following 3 cohorts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER [n = 296273]); 5 equal-access regional medical centers within the Veterans Affairs health system (VA [n = 3972]); and 4 pooled National Cancer Institute-sponsored Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs [n = 5854]). Data were collected in the 3 cohorts from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from April 27, 2017, through April 13, 2019. Exposures: In the VA and RCT cohorts, all patients received surgery and radiotherapy, respectively, with curative intent. In SEER, radical treatment, hormone therapy, or conservative management were received. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary measures included other-cause mortality (OCM). To adjust for demographic-, cancer-, and treatment-related baseline differences, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was performed. Results: Among the 306 100 participants included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [8.9] years), black men constituted 52840 patients (17.8%) in the SEER cohort, 1513 (38.1%) in the VA cohort, and 1129 (19.3%) in the RCT cohort. Black race was associated with an increased age-adjusted PCSM hazard (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P <.001) within the SEER cohort. After IPW adjustment, black race was associated with a 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.9%) increase in PCSM at 10 years after diagnosis (sHR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P <.001), with no significant difference for high-risk men (sHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; P =.29). No significant differences in PCSM were found in the VA IPW cohort (sHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.30; P =.46), and black men had a significantly lower hazard in the RCT IPW cohort (sHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99; P =.04). Black men had a significantly increased hazard of OCM in the SEER (sHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.34; P <.001) and RCT (sHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; P =.002) IPW cohorts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, after adjustment for nonbiological differences, notably access to care and standardized treatment, black race did not appear to be associated with inferior stage-for-stage PCSM. A large disparity remained in OCM for black men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJAMA Oncology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Prostatic Neoplasms
Mortality
Radiotherapy
Veterans Health
Phase III Clinical Trials
Radiation Oncology
Second Primary Neoplasms
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Therapeutics
Randomized Controlled Trials
Demography
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Hormones
Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Dess, R. T., Hartman, H. E., Mahal, B. A., Soni, P. D., Jackson, W. C., Cooperberg, M. R., ... Spratt, D. E. (2019). Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality. JAMA Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.0826

Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality. / Dess, Robert T.; Hartman, Holly E.; Mahal, Brandon A.; Soni, Payal D.; Jackson, William C.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Amling, Christopher; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Terris, Martha K.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Butler, Santino; Osborne, Joseph R.; Morgan, Todd M.; Mehra, Rohit; Salami, Simpa S.; Kishan, Amar U.; Wang, Chenyang; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Roach, MacK; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Shipley, William U.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Sandler, Howard M.; Halabi, Susan; Feng, Felix Y.; Dignam, James J.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Schipper, Matthew J.; Spratt, Daniel E.

In: JAMA Oncology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dess, RT, Hartman, HE, Mahal, BA, Soni, PD, Jackson, WC, Cooperberg, MR, Amling, C, Aronson, WJ, Kane, CJ, Terris, MK, Zumsteg, ZS, Butler, S, Osborne, JR, Morgan, TM, Mehra, R, Salami, SS, Kishan, AU, Wang, C, Schaeffer, EM, Roach, M, Pisansky, TM, Shipley, WU, Freedland, SJ, Sandler, HM, Halabi, S, Feng, FY, Dignam, JJ, Nguyen, PL, Schipper, MJ & Spratt, DE 2019, 'Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality', JAMA Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.0826
Dess, Robert T. ; Hartman, Holly E. ; Mahal, Brandon A. ; Soni, Payal D. ; Jackson, William C. ; Cooperberg, Matthew R. ; Amling, Christopher ; Aronson, William J. ; Kane, Christopher J. ; Terris, Martha K. ; Zumsteg, Zachary S. ; Butler, Santino ; Osborne, Joseph R. ; Morgan, Todd M. ; Mehra, Rohit ; Salami, Simpa S. ; Kishan, Amar U. ; Wang, Chenyang ; Schaeffer, Edward M. ; Roach, MacK ; Pisansky, Thomas M. ; Shipley, William U. ; Freedland, Stephen J. ; Sandler, Howard M. ; Halabi, Susan ; Feng, Felix Y. ; Dignam, James J. ; Nguyen, Paul L. ; Schipper, Matthew J. ; Spratt, Daniel E. / Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality. In: JAMA Oncology. 2019.
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title = "Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality",
abstract = "Importance: Black men are more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. In men with similar stages of disease, the contribution of biological vs nonbiological differences to this observed disparity is unclear. Objective: To quantify the association of black race with long-term survival outcomes after controlling for known prognostic variables and access to care among men with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multiple-cohort study included updated individual patient-level data of men with clinical T1-4N0-1M0 prostate cancer from the following 3 cohorts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER [n = 296273]); 5 equal-access regional medical centers within the Veterans Affairs health system (VA [n = 3972]); and 4 pooled National Cancer Institute-sponsored Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs [n = 5854]). Data were collected in the 3 cohorts from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from April 27, 2017, through April 13, 2019. Exposures: In the VA and RCT cohorts, all patients received surgery and radiotherapy, respectively, with curative intent. In SEER, radical treatment, hormone therapy, or conservative management were received. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary measures included other-cause mortality (OCM). To adjust for demographic-, cancer-, and treatment-related baseline differences, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was performed. Results: Among the 306 100 participants included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [8.9] years), black men constituted 52840 patients (17.8{\%}) in the SEER cohort, 1513 (38.1{\%}) in the VA cohort, and 1129 (19.3{\%}) in the RCT cohort. Black race was associated with an increased age-adjusted PCSM hazard (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.30; 95{\%} CI, 1.23-1.37; P <.001) within the SEER cohort. After IPW adjustment, black race was associated with a 0.5{\%} (95{\%} CI, 0.2{\%}-0.9{\%}) increase in PCSM at 10 years after diagnosis (sHR, 1.09; 95{\%} CI, 1.04-1.15; P <.001), with no significant difference for high-risk men (sHR, 1.04; 95{\%} CI, 0.97-1.12; P =.29). No significant differences in PCSM were found in the VA IPW cohort (sHR, 0.85; 95{\%} CI, 0.56-1.30; P =.46), and black men had a significantly lower hazard in the RCT IPW cohort (sHR, 0.81; 95{\%} CI, 0.66-0.99; P =.04). Black men had a significantly increased hazard of OCM in the SEER (sHR, 1.30; 95{\%} CI, 1.27-1.34; P <.001) and RCT (sHR, 1.17; 95{\%} CI, 1.06-1.29; P =.002) IPW cohorts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, after adjustment for nonbiological differences, notably access to care and standardized treatment, black race did not appear to be associated with inferior stage-for-stage PCSM. A large disparity remained in OCM for black men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.",
author = "Dess, {Robert T.} and Hartman, {Holly E.} and Mahal, {Brandon A.} and Soni, {Payal D.} and Jackson, {William C.} and Cooperberg, {Matthew R.} and Christopher Amling and Aronson, {William J.} and Kane, {Christopher J.} and Terris, {Martha K.} and Zumsteg, {Zachary S.} and Santino Butler and Osborne, {Joseph R.} and Morgan, {Todd M.} and Rohit Mehra and Salami, {Simpa S.} and Kishan, {Amar U.} and Chenyang Wang and Schaeffer, {Edward M.} and MacK Roach and Pisansky, {Thomas M.} and Shipley, {William U.} and Freedland, {Stephen J.} and Sandler, {Howard M.} and Susan Halabi and Feng, {Felix Y.} and Dignam, {James J.} and Nguyen, {Paul L.} and Schipper, {Matthew J.} and Spratt, {Daniel E.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.0826",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "JAMA oncology",
issn = "2374-2437",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality

AU - Dess, Robert T.

AU - Hartman, Holly E.

AU - Mahal, Brandon A.

AU - Soni, Payal D.

AU - Jackson, William C.

AU - Cooperberg, Matthew R.

AU - Amling, Christopher

AU - Aronson, William J.

AU - Kane, Christopher J.

AU - Terris, Martha K.

AU - Zumsteg, Zachary S.

AU - Butler, Santino

AU - Osborne, Joseph R.

AU - Morgan, Todd M.

AU - Mehra, Rohit

AU - Salami, Simpa S.

AU - Kishan, Amar U.

AU - Wang, Chenyang

AU - Schaeffer, Edward M.

AU - Roach, MacK

AU - Pisansky, Thomas M.

AU - Shipley, William U.

AU - Freedland, Stephen J.

AU - Sandler, Howard M.

AU - Halabi, Susan

AU - Feng, Felix Y.

AU - Dignam, James J.

AU - Nguyen, Paul L.

AU - Schipper, Matthew J.

AU - Spratt, Daniel E.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Importance: Black men are more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. In men with similar stages of disease, the contribution of biological vs nonbiological differences to this observed disparity is unclear. Objective: To quantify the association of black race with long-term survival outcomes after controlling for known prognostic variables and access to care among men with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multiple-cohort study included updated individual patient-level data of men with clinical T1-4N0-1M0 prostate cancer from the following 3 cohorts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER [n = 296273]); 5 equal-access regional medical centers within the Veterans Affairs health system (VA [n = 3972]); and 4 pooled National Cancer Institute-sponsored Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs [n = 5854]). Data were collected in the 3 cohorts from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from April 27, 2017, through April 13, 2019. Exposures: In the VA and RCT cohorts, all patients received surgery and radiotherapy, respectively, with curative intent. In SEER, radical treatment, hormone therapy, or conservative management were received. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary measures included other-cause mortality (OCM). To adjust for demographic-, cancer-, and treatment-related baseline differences, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was performed. Results: Among the 306 100 participants included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [8.9] years), black men constituted 52840 patients (17.8%) in the SEER cohort, 1513 (38.1%) in the VA cohort, and 1129 (19.3%) in the RCT cohort. Black race was associated with an increased age-adjusted PCSM hazard (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P <.001) within the SEER cohort. After IPW adjustment, black race was associated with a 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.9%) increase in PCSM at 10 years after diagnosis (sHR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P <.001), with no significant difference for high-risk men (sHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; P =.29). No significant differences in PCSM were found in the VA IPW cohort (sHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.30; P =.46), and black men had a significantly lower hazard in the RCT IPW cohort (sHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99; P =.04). Black men had a significantly increased hazard of OCM in the SEER (sHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.34; P <.001) and RCT (sHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; P =.002) IPW cohorts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, after adjustment for nonbiological differences, notably access to care and standardized treatment, black race did not appear to be associated with inferior stage-for-stage PCSM. A large disparity remained in OCM for black men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

AB - Importance: Black men are more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. In men with similar stages of disease, the contribution of biological vs nonbiological differences to this observed disparity is unclear. Objective: To quantify the association of black race with long-term survival outcomes after controlling for known prognostic variables and access to care among men with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multiple-cohort study included updated individual patient-level data of men with clinical T1-4N0-1M0 prostate cancer from the following 3 cohorts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER [n = 296273]); 5 equal-access regional medical centers within the Veterans Affairs health system (VA [n = 3972]); and 4 pooled National Cancer Institute-sponsored Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs [n = 5854]). Data were collected in the 3 cohorts from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from April 27, 2017, through April 13, 2019. Exposures: In the VA and RCT cohorts, all patients received surgery and radiotherapy, respectively, with curative intent. In SEER, radical treatment, hormone therapy, or conservative management were received. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary measures included other-cause mortality (OCM). To adjust for demographic-, cancer-, and treatment-related baseline differences, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was performed. Results: Among the 306 100 participants included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [8.9] years), black men constituted 52840 patients (17.8%) in the SEER cohort, 1513 (38.1%) in the VA cohort, and 1129 (19.3%) in the RCT cohort. Black race was associated with an increased age-adjusted PCSM hazard (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P <.001) within the SEER cohort. After IPW adjustment, black race was associated with a 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.9%) increase in PCSM at 10 years after diagnosis (sHR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P <.001), with no significant difference for high-risk men (sHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; P =.29). No significant differences in PCSM were found in the VA IPW cohort (sHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.30; P =.46), and black men had a significantly lower hazard in the RCT IPW cohort (sHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99; P =.04). Black men had a significantly increased hazard of OCM in the SEER (sHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.34; P <.001) and RCT (sHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; P =.002) IPW cohorts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, after adjustment for nonbiological differences, notably access to care and standardized treatment, black race did not appear to be associated with inferior stage-for-stage PCSM. A large disparity remained in OCM for black men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

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