Association between treatment setting and outcomes among oregon medicaid patients with opioid use disorder: a retrospective cohort study

Daniel M. Hartung, Sheila Markwardt, Kirbee Johnston, Jonah Geddes, Robin Baker, Gillian Leichtling, Christi Hildebran, Brian Chan, Ryan R. Cook, Dennis McCarty, Udi Ghitza, P. Todd Korthuis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Residential treatment is a common approach for treating opioid use disorder (OUD), however, few studies have directly compared it to outpatient treatment. The objective of this study was to compare OUD outcomes among individuals receiving residential and outpatient treatment. Methods: A retrospective cohort study used linked data from a state Medicaid program, vital statistics, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Episodes Dataset (TEDS) to compare OUD-related health outcomes among individuals treated in a residential or outpatient setting between 2014 and 2017. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models examined the association between treatment setting and outcomes (i.e., opioid overdose, non-overdose opioid-related and all-cause emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and treatment retention) controlling for patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and use of medications for opioid use disorders (MOUD). Interaction models evaluated how MOUD use modified associations between treatment setting and outcomes. Results: Of 3293 individuals treated for OUD, 957 (29%) received treatment in a residential facility. MOUD use was higher among those treated as an outpatient (43%) compared to residential (19%). The risk of opioid overdose (aHR 1.39; 95% CI 0.73–2.64) or an opioid-related emergency department encounter or admission (aHR 1.02; 95% CI 0.80–1.29) did not differ between treatment settings. Independent of setting, MOUD use was associated with a significant reduction in overdose risk (aHR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23–0.89). Residential care was associated with greater odds of retention at 6-months (aOR 1.71; 95% CI 1.32–2.21) but not 1-year. Residential treatment was only associated with improved retention for individuals not receiving MOUD (6-month aOR 2.05; 95% CI 1.56–2.71) with no benefit observed in those who received MOUD (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.46–1.29; interaction p = 0.001). Conclusions: Relative to outpatient treatment, residential treatment was not associated with reductions in opioid overdose or opioid-related ED encounters/hospitalizations. Regardless of setting, MOUD use was associated with a significant reduction in opioid overdose risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number45
JournalAddiction Science and Clinical Practice
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Medications for opioid use disorder
  • Opioid use disorder
  • Residential treatment
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Association between treatment setting and outcomes among oregon medicaid patients with opioid use disorder: a retrospective cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this