Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people

Tove K. Ryman, Bert Boyer, Scarlett E. Hopkins, Jacques Philip, Beti Thompson, Shirley A.A. Beresford, Kenneth E. Thummel, Melissa A. Austin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: The traditional lifestyle of Yup’ik Alaska Native people, including a diet abundant in marine-based foods and physical activity, may be cardio-protective. However, iq’mik, a traditional form of smokeless tobacco used by >50% of Yup’ik adults, could increase cardiometabolic (CM) risk. Our objective was to characterize the associations between iq’mik use and biomarkers of CM status (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting blood glucose [FBG], waist circumference [WC], and body mass index [BMI]). Design: We assessed these associations using data from a cross-sectional sample of Yup’ik adults (n = 874). Current iq’mik use, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected through interviews. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG. SBP, DBP, WC, and BMI were obtained by physical examination. We characterized the association between current iq’mik use and continuous biomarkers of CM status using multiple approaches, including adjustment for measures of Yup’ik lifestyle and a propensity score. Results: Based on either adjustment method, current iq’mik use was significantly and positively associated with at least 5% higher HDL-C, and significantly associated but in an inverse direction with multiple biomarkers of CM status including 7% lower TG, 0.05% lower HbA1c, 2% lower FBG, 4% lower WC, and 4% lower BMI. Observed associations for LDL-C, SBP, and DBP varied by adjustment method. Conclusions: This inverse association between iq’mik use and cardiometabolic risk status has not been previously reported. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and explore physiological mechanisms and/or confounding factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)488-502
Number of pages15
JournalEthnicity and Health
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 4 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Smokeless Tobacco
Tobacco Use
nicotine
Blood Pressure
Fasting
Waist Circumference
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
food
Blood Glucose
Social Adjustment
Life Style
examination
Triglycerides
Body Mass Index
Biomarkers
interview
Alaska Natives
Native People
Cholesterol

Keywords

  • Alaska Native
  • Iq’mik
  • smokeless tobacco
  • Yup’ik cardiometabolic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people. / Ryman, Tove K.; Boyer, Bert; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Philip, Jacques; Thompson, Beti; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Austin, Melissa A.

In: Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 23, No. 5, 04.07.2018, p. 488-502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ryman, TK, Boyer, B, Hopkins, SE, Philip, J, Thompson, B, Beresford, SAA, Thummel, KE & Austin, MA 2018, 'Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people', Ethnicity and Health, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 488-502. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2017.1280136
Ryman, Tove K. ; Boyer, Bert ; Hopkins, Scarlett E. ; Philip, Jacques ; Thompson, Beti ; Beresford, Shirley A.A. ; Thummel, Kenneth E. ; Austin, Melissa A. / Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people. In: Ethnicity and Health. 2018 ; Vol. 23, No. 5. pp. 488-502.
@article{81f2600d218f4462826a589f68c54be8,
title = "Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people",
abstract = "Objective: The traditional lifestyle of Yup’ik Alaska Native people, including a diet abundant in marine-based foods and physical activity, may be cardio-protective. However, iq’mik, a traditional form of smokeless tobacco used by >50{\%} of Yup’ik adults, could increase cardiometabolic (CM) risk. Our objective was to characterize the associations between iq’mik use and biomarkers of CM status (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting blood glucose [FBG], waist circumference [WC], and body mass index [BMI]). Design: We assessed these associations using data from a cross-sectional sample of Yup’ik adults (n = 874). Current iq’mik use, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected through interviews. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG. SBP, DBP, WC, and BMI were obtained by physical examination. We characterized the association between current iq’mik use and continuous biomarkers of CM status using multiple approaches, including adjustment for measures of Yup’ik lifestyle and a propensity score. Results: Based on either adjustment method, current iq’mik use was significantly and positively associated with at least 5{\%} higher HDL-C, and significantly associated but in an inverse direction with multiple biomarkers of CM status including 7{\%} lower TG, 0.05{\%} lower HbA1c, 2{\%} lower FBG, 4{\%} lower WC, and 4{\%} lower BMI. Observed associations for LDL-C, SBP, and DBP varied by adjustment method. Conclusions: This inverse association between iq’mik use and cardiometabolic risk status has not been previously reported. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and explore physiological mechanisms and/or confounding factors.",
keywords = "Alaska Native, Iq’mik, smokeless tobacco, Yup’ik cardiometabolic",
author = "Ryman, {Tove K.} and Bert Boyer and Hopkins, {Scarlett E.} and Jacques Philip and Beti Thompson and Beresford, {Shirley A.A.} and Thummel, {Kenneth E.} and Austin, {Melissa A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1080/13557858.2017.1280136",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "488--502",
journal = "Ethnicity and Health",
issn = "1355-7858",
publisher = "Routledge",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between iq’mik smokeless tobacco use and cardiometabolic risk profile among Yup’ik Alaska Native people

AU - Ryman, Tove K.

AU - Boyer, Bert

AU - Hopkins, Scarlett E.

AU - Philip, Jacques

AU - Thompson, Beti

AU - Beresford, Shirley A.A.

AU - Thummel, Kenneth E.

AU - Austin, Melissa A.

PY - 2018/7/4

Y1 - 2018/7/4

N2 - Objective: The traditional lifestyle of Yup’ik Alaska Native people, including a diet abundant in marine-based foods and physical activity, may be cardio-protective. However, iq’mik, a traditional form of smokeless tobacco used by >50% of Yup’ik adults, could increase cardiometabolic (CM) risk. Our objective was to characterize the associations between iq’mik use and biomarkers of CM status (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting blood glucose [FBG], waist circumference [WC], and body mass index [BMI]). Design: We assessed these associations using data from a cross-sectional sample of Yup’ik adults (n = 874). Current iq’mik use, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected through interviews. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG. SBP, DBP, WC, and BMI were obtained by physical examination. We characterized the association between current iq’mik use and continuous biomarkers of CM status using multiple approaches, including adjustment for measures of Yup’ik lifestyle and a propensity score. Results: Based on either adjustment method, current iq’mik use was significantly and positively associated with at least 5% higher HDL-C, and significantly associated but in an inverse direction with multiple biomarkers of CM status including 7% lower TG, 0.05% lower HbA1c, 2% lower FBG, 4% lower WC, and 4% lower BMI. Observed associations for LDL-C, SBP, and DBP varied by adjustment method. Conclusions: This inverse association between iq’mik use and cardiometabolic risk status has not been previously reported. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and explore physiological mechanisms and/or confounding factors.

AB - Objective: The traditional lifestyle of Yup’ik Alaska Native people, including a diet abundant in marine-based foods and physical activity, may be cardio-protective. However, iq’mik, a traditional form of smokeless tobacco used by >50% of Yup’ik adults, could increase cardiometabolic (CM) risk. Our objective was to characterize the associations between iq’mik use and biomarkers of CM status (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting blood glucose [FBG], waist circumference [WC], and body mass index [BMI]). Design: We assessed these associations using data from a cross-sectional sample of Yup’ik adults (n = 874). Current iq’mik use, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected through interviews. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG. SBP, DBP, WC, and BMI were obtained by physical examination. We characterized the association between current iq’mik use and continuous biomarkers of CM status using multiple approaches, including adjustment for measures of Yup’ik lifestyle and a propensity score. Results: Based on either adjustment method, current iq’mik use was significantly and positively associated with at least 5% higher HDL-C, and significantly associated but in an inverse direction with multiple biomarkers of CM status including 7% lower TG, 0.05% lower HbA1c, 2% lower FBG, 4% lower WC, and 4% lower BMI. Observed associations for LDL-C, SBP, and DBP varied by adjustment method. Conclusions: This inverse association between iq’mik use and cardiometabolic risk status has not been previously reported. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and explore physiological mechanisms and/or confounding factors.

KW - Alaska Native

KW - Iq’mik

KW - smokeless tobacco

KW - Yup’ik cardiometabolic

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85010700170&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85010700170&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/13557858.2017.1280136

DO - 10.1080/13557858.2017.1280136

M3 - Article

C2 - 28116909

AN - SCOPUS:85010700170

VL - 23

SP - 488

EP - 502

JO - Ethnicity and Health

JF - Ethnicity and Health

SN - 1355-7858

IS - 5

ER -