Assessment of newly synthesized mitochondrial DNA using BrdU labeling in primary neurons from Alzheimer's disease mice: Implications for impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic damage

Marcus J. Calkins, P (Hemachandra) Reddy

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    Abstract

    The purpose of our study was to assess mitochondrial biogenesis and distribution in murine primary neurons. Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and primary neurons, we studied the mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial distribution in hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) neurons treated with oxidative stressors, rotenone and H2O2. We found that after 20h of labeling, BrdU incorporation was specific to porin-positive mitochondria. The proportion of mitochondrial area labeled with BrdU was 40.3±6.3% at 20h. The number of mitochondria with newly synthesized DNA was higher in AβPP neuronal cell bodies than in the cell bodies of WT neurons (AβPP, 45.23±2.67 BrdU-positive/cell body; WT, 32.92±2.49 BrdU-positive/cell body; p=0.005). In neurites, the number of BrdU-positive mitochondria decreased in AβPP cultures compared to WT neurons (AβPP, 0.105±0.008 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; WT, 0.220±0.036 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; p=0.010). Further, BrdU in the cell body increased when neurons were treated with low doses of H2O2 (49.6±2.7 BrdU-positive/cell body, p=0.0002 compared to untreated cells), while the neurites showed decreased BrdU staining (0.122±0.010 BrdU-positive/μm neurite, p=0.005 compared to the untreated). BrdU labeling was increased in the cell body under rotenone treatment. Additionally, under rotenone treatment, the content of BrdU labeling decreased in neurites. These findings suggest that Aβ and mitochondrial toxins enhance mitochondrial fragmentation in the cell body, and may cause impaired axonal transport of mitochondria leading to synaptic degeneration.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1182-1189
    Number of pages8
    JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
    Volume1812
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Sep 2011

    Fingerprint

    Organelle Biogenesis
    Bromodeoxyuridine
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Alzheimer Disease
    Neurons
    Neurites
    Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
    Rotenone
    Mitochondria
    Somatotypes
    Porins
    Axonal Transport
    Cell Body
    Transgenic Mice

    Keywords

    • 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Cell body mitochondria
    • Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant
    • Mitochondrial DNA synthesis
    • Primary neuron

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Molecular Biology
    • Molecular Medicine

    Cite this

    @article{0980b13a06e145fc8a3b09c60208d777,
    title = "Assessment of newly synthesized mitochondrial DNA using BrdU labeling in primary neurons from Alzheimer's disease mice: Implications for impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic damage",
    abstract = "The purpose of our study was to assess mitochondrial biogenesis and distribution in murine primary neurons. Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and primary neurons, we studied the mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial distribution in hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) neurons treated with oxidative stressors, rotenone and H2O2. We found that after 20h of labeling, BrdU incorporation was specific to porin-positive mitochondria. The proportion of mitochondrial area labeled with BrdU was 40.3±6.3{\%} at 20h. The number of mitochondria with newly synthesized DNA was higher in AβPP neuronal cell bodies than in the cell bodies of WT neurons (AβPP, 45.23±2.67 BrdU-positive/cell body; WT, 32.92±2.49 BrdU-positive/cell body; p=0.005). In neurites, the number of BrdU-positive mitochondria decreased in AβPP cultures compared to WT neurons (AβPP, 0.105±0.008 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; WT, 0.220±0.036 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; p=0.010). Further, BrdU in the cell body increased when neurons were treated with low doses of H2O2 (49.6±2.7 BrdU-positive/cell body, p=0.0002 compared to untreated cells), while the neurites showed decreased BrdU staining (0.122±0.010 BrdU-positive/μm neurite, p=0.005 compared to the untreated). BrdU labeling was increased in the cell body under rotenone treatment. Additionally, under rotenone treatment, the content of BrdU labeling decreased in neurites. These findings suggest that Aβ and mitochondrial toxins enhance mitochondrial fragmentation in the cell body, and may cause impaired axonal transport of mitochondria leading to synaptic degeneration.",
    keywords = "5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine, Alzheimer's disease, Cell body mitochondria, Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, Mitochondrial DNA synthesis, Primary neuron",
    author = "Calkins, {Marcus J.} and Reddy, {P (Hemachandra)}",
    year = "2011",
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    number = "9",

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    T1 - Assessment of newly synthesized mitochondrial DNA using BrdU labeling in primary neurons from Alzheimer's disease mice

    T2 - Implications for impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic damage

    AU - Calkins, Marcus J.

    AU - Reddy, P (Hemachandra)

    PY - 2011/9

    Y1 - 2011/9

    N2 - The purpose of our study was to assess mitochondrial biogenesis and distribution in murine primary neurons. Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and primary neurons, we studied the mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial distribution in hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) neurons treated with oxidative stressors, rotenone and H2O2. We found that after 20h of labeling, BrdU incorporation was specific to porin-positive mitochondria. The proportion of mitochondrial area labeled with BrdU was 40.3±6.3% at 20h. The number of mitochondria with newly synthesized DNA was higher in AβPP neuronal cell bodies than in the cell bodies of WT neurons (AβPP, 45.23±2.67 BrdU-positive/cell body; WT, 32.92±2.49 BrdU-positive/cell body; p=0.005). In neurites, the number of BrdU-positive mitochondria decreased in AβPP cultures compared to WT neurons (AβPP, 0.105±0.008 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; WT, 0.220±0.036 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; p=0.010). Further, BrdU in the cell body increased when neurons were treated with low doses of H2O2 (49.6±2.7 BrdU-positive/cell body, p=0.0002 compared to untreated cells), while the neurites showed decreased BrdU staining (0.122±0.010 BrdU-positive/μm neurite, p=0.005 compared to the untreated). BrdU labeling was increased in the cell body under rotenone treatment. Additionally, under rotenone treatment, the content of BrdU labeling decreased in neurites. These findings suggest that Aβ and mitochondrial toxins enhance mitochondrial fragmentation in the cell body, and may cause impaired axonal transport of mitochondria leading to synaptic degeneration.

    AB - The purpose of our study was to assess mitochondrial biogenesis and distribution in murine primary neurons. Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and primary neurons, we studied the mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial distribution in hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) neurons treated with oxidative stressors, rotenone and H2O2. We found that after 20h of labeling, BrdU incorporation was specific to porin-positive mitochondria. The proportion of mitochondrial area labeled with BrdU was 40.3±6.3% at 20h. The number of mitochondria with newly synthesized DNA was higher in AβPP neuronal cell bodies than in the cell bodies of WT neurons (AβPP, 45.23±2.67 BrdU-positive/cell body; WT, 32.92±2.49 BrdU-positive/cell body; p=0.005). In neurites, the number of BrdU-positive mitochondria decreased in AβPP cultures compared to WT neurons (AβPP, 0.105±0.008 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; WT, 0.220±0.036 BrdU-positive/μm neurite; p=0.010). Further, BrdU in the cell body increased when neurons were treated with low doses of H2O2 (49.6±2.7 BrdU-positive/cell body, p=0.0002 compared to untreated cells), while the neurites showed decreased BrdU staining (0.122±0.010 BrdU-positive/μm neurite, p=0.005 compared to the untreated). BrdU labeling was increased in the cell body under rotenone treatment. Additionally, under rotenone treatment, the content of BrdU labeling decreased in neurites. These findings suggest that Aβ and mitochondrial toxins enhance mitochondrial fragmentation in the cell body, and may cause impaired axonal transport of mitochondria leading to synaptic degeneration.

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    KW - Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant

    KW - Mitochondrial DNA synthesis

    KW - Primary neuron

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