Assessment of myocardial collateral blood flow with contrast echocardiography

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    2 Scopus citations


    Humans have pre-formed collateral vessels that enlarge with ischemia. In addition, new vessels can be formed within ischemic zones from pre-formed endocardial arcades of vessels providing rich collateral flow. Collateral flow under resting conditions (if >25% of normal) is enough to maintain myocardial viability, but may be insufficient to prevent myocardial ischemia under stress. Coronary angiography is a poor tool for collateral flow assessment. Myocardial contrast echocardiography is arguably the gold standard for experimental and clinical measurement of collateral flow. This review describes several experimental and clinical studies that highlight the importance of the collateral circulation in coronary artery disease.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)351-356
    Number of pages6
    JournalKorean Circulation Journal
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


    • Collateral blood circulation
    • Contrast echocardiography
    • Myocardial ischemia

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine
    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


    Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of myocardial collateral blood flow with contrast echocardiography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this