Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of and the risk factors for arteriopathy in hepatic arteries after transarterial chemo-lipiodolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and the subsequent treatment strategy changes due to arteriopathy. Patients and methods A total of 365 arteries in 167 patients (126 men and 41 women; mean age, 60.4 ± 15.0 [SD] years [range: 18–87 years]) were evaluated for the development of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization with epirubicin- or doxorubicin-Lipiodol® emulsion. The development of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization was assessed on arteriograms performed during subsequent transarterial treatments. The treatment strategy changes due to arteriopathy, including change in the chemo-lipiodolization method and the application of alternative therapies was also investigated. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for arteriopathy and subsequent treatment strategy change. Results One hundred two (27.9%) arteriopathies were detected in 62/167 (37.1%) patients (45 men, 17 women) with a mean age of 63.3 ± 7.1 [SD] years (age range, 50–86 years). The incidence of arteriopathy was highly patient dependent, demonstrating significant correlation in a fully-adjusted multivariate regression model (P < 0.0001). Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis with adjustment for the patient effect showed a statistically significant association of super-selective chemo-lipiodolization (P = 0.003) with the incidence of arteriopathy. Thirty of the 102 arteriopathies (29.4%) caused a change in treatment strategy. No factors were found to be significantly associated with the treatment strategy change. Conclusion The incidence of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization is 27.9%. Among them, 29.4% result in a change in treatment strategy.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Intra-arterial chemotherapy
- Lipiodol (ethiodized oil)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging