The domain of the chest physician includes components of several different organ systems. The chest surgeon, or his medical counterpart, must be well versed in diseases of the esophagus, respiratory system and cardiovascular system. In recent years, lasers have become valuable instruments for the treatment of diseases in all these systems. Lasers have been applied clinically in the endoscopic treatment of esophageal and tracheobronchial processes. There have been few clinical applications of lasers in cardiovascular medicine; however, there is much investigation currently in process in this area and much excitement about the potential applications on the horizon. Photodynamic therapy utilizing light activated cytoxic substances and laser light is yet another promising approach in the treatment of many forms of cancer.