Antiretroviral regimen and suboptimal medication adherence are associated with low-level human immunodeficiency virus viremia

Christina Konstantopoulos, Heather Ribaudo, Kathleen Ragland, David Bangsberg, Jonathan Z. Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Episodes of human immunodeficiency virus low-level viremia (LLV) are common in the clinical setting, but its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and adherence remains unclear. Antiretroviral therapy adherence was evaluated in participants of the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless cohort by unannounced pill counts. Factors associated with increased risk of LLV include treatment with a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen (ritonavir-boosted PI vs nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; P = .01) and lower ART adherence over the past 3 months (HR, 1.1 per 5% decreased adherence, adjusted; P = .050). Patients with LLV may benefit fromART adherence counseling and potentially regimen modification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofu119
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes



  • Adherence
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Low-level viremia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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