Antibody-based CCR5 blockade protects Macaques from mucosal SHIV transmission

Xiao L. Chang, Gabriela M. Webb, Helen L. Wu, Justin M. Greene, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Katherine B. Bateman, Jason S. Reed, Cleiton Pessoa, Whitney C. Weber, Nicholas Maier, Glen M. Chew, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Lina Gao, Rebecca Agnor, Travis Giobbi, Jeffrey Torgerson, Don Siess, Nicole Burnett, Miranda Fischer, Oriene ShielCassandra Moats, Bruce Patterson, Kush Dhody, Scott Kelly, Nader Pourhassan, Diogo M. Magnani, Jeremy Smedley, Benjamin N. Bimber, Nancy L. Haigwood, Scott G. Hansen, Timothy R. Brown, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Jonah B. Sacha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition by uninfected individuals is a promising approach to slowing the epidemic, but its efficacy is hampered by incomplete patient adherence and ART-resistant variants. Here, we report that competitive inhibition of HIV Env-CCR5 binding via the CCR5-specific antibody Leronlimab protects rhesus macaques against infection following repeated intrarectal challenges of CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162P3. Injection of Leronlimab weekly at 10 mg/kg provides significant but partial protection, while biweekly 50 mg/kg provides complete protection from SHIV acquisition. Tissue biopsies from protected macaques post challenge show complete CCR5 receptor occupancy and an absence of viral nucleic acids. After Leronlimab washout, protected macaques remain aviremic, and adoptive transfer of hematologic cells into naïve macaques does not transmit viral infection. These data identify CCR5 blockade with Leronlimab as a promising approach to HIV prophylaxis and support initiation of clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3343
JournalNature communications
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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