Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of makaluvamine analogs

Bhavitavya Nijampatnam, Dwayaja H. Nadkarni, Hui Wu, Sadanandan E. Velu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-139
Number of pages12
JournalMicroorganisms
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Antibacterial
  • Biofilm
  • Dental caries
  • Makaluvamine
  • Marine alkaloid
  • Pyrroloiminoquinone
  • Streptococcus mutans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology

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