Analysis of levodopa content in commercial mucuna pruriens products using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

Amala Soumyanath, Tanya Denne, Amie Peterson, Shaila Ramachandran, Lynne Shinto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Design: Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. Results: HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6% to 141% of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90%-110% label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. Conclusions: The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-186
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Fingerprint

Mucuna
Levodopa
Fluorescence
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Parkinson Disease
Seeds
Traditional Medicine
Reverse-Phase Chromatography

Keywords

  • analysis
  • commercial products
  • HPLC
  • levodopa
  • Mucuna pruriens
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

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title = "Analysis of levodopa content in commercial mucuna pruriens products using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection",
abstract = "Objectives: Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2{\%} by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named {"}Kampavata,{"} now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Design: Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. Results: HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6{\%} to 141{\%} of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90{\%}-110{\%} label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. Conclusions: The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.",
keywords = "analysis, commercial products, HPLC, levodopa, Mucuna pruriens, Parkinson's disease",
author = "Amala Soumyanath and Tanya Denne and Amie Peterson and Shaila Ramachandran and Lynne Shinto",
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pages = "182--186",
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T1 - Analysis of levodopa content in commercial mucuna pruriens products using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

AU - Soumyanath, Amala

AU - Denne, Tanya

AU - Peterson, Amie

AU - Ramachandran, Shaila

AU - Shinto, Lynne

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - Objectives: Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Design: Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. Results: HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6% to 141% of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90%-110% label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. Conclusions: The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.

AB - Objectives: Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Design: Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. Results: HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6% to 141% of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90%-110% label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. Conclusions: The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.

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KW - Mucuna pruriens

KW - Parkinson's disease

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