Analysis of hot-carrier luminescence for infrared single-photon upconversion and readout

Hod Finkelstein, Yu Hwa Lo, Sadik Esener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We propose and analyze a new method for single-photon wavelength up-conversion using optical coupling between a primary infrared (IR) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) silicon SPAD, which are fused through a silicon dioxide passivation layer. A primary IR photon induces an avalanche in the IR SPAD. The photons produced by hot-carrier recombination are subsequently sensed by the silicon SPAD, thus, allowing for on-die data processing. Because the devices are fused through their passivation layers, lattice mismatch issues between the semiconductor materials are avoided. We develop a model for calculating the conversion efficiency of the device, and use realistic device parameters to estimate up to 97% upconversion efficiency and 33% system efficiency, limited by the IR detector alone. The new scheme offers a low-cost means to manufacture dense IR-SPAD arrays, while significantly reducing their afterpulsing. We show that this high-speed compact method for upconverting IR photons is feasible and efficient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)959-966
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hot carriers
readout
Luminescence
Photons
Avalanche diodes
luminescence
avalanche diodes
Infrared radiation
photons
Passivation
passivity
Silicon
optical coupling
Lattice mismatch
Infrared detectors
infrared detectors
silicon
avalanches
Conversion efficiency
CMOS

Keywords

  • Avalanche photodiodes
  • single photon detectors
  • wavelength upconversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Analysis of hot-carrier luminescence for infrared single-photon upconversion and readout. / Finkelstein, Hod; Lo, Yu Hwa; Esener, Sadik.

In: IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2007, p. 959-966.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{526b57e6a24d4c35bb49eea0e646837c,
title = "Analysis of hot-carrier luminescence for infrared single-photon upconversion and readout",
abstract = "We propose and analyze a new method for single-photon wavelength up-conversion using optical coupling between a primary infrared (IR) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) silicon SPAD, which are fused through a silicon dioxide passivation layer. A primary IR photon induces an avalanche in the IR SPAD. The photons produced by hot-carrier recombination are subsequently sensed by the silicon SPAD, thus, allowing for on-die data processing. Because the devices are fused through their passivation layers, lattice mismatch issues between the semiconductor materials are avoided. We develop a model for calculating the conversion efficiency of the device, and use realistic device parameters to estimate up to 97{\%} upconversion efficiency and 33{\%} system efficiency, limited by the IR detector alone. The new scheme offers a low-cost means to manufacture dense IR-SPAD arrays, while significantly reducing their afterpulsing. We show that this high-speed compact method for upconverting IR photons is feasible and efficient.",
keywords = "Avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors, wavelength upconversion",
author = "Hod Finkelstein and Lo, {Yu Hwa} and Sadik Esener",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1109/JSTQE.2007.901884",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "959--966",
journal = "IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics",
issn = "1077-260X",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of hot-carrier luminescence for infrared single-photon upconversion and readout

AU - Finkelstein, Hod

AU - Lo, Yu Hwa

AU - Esener, Sadik

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - We propose and analyze a new method for single-photon wavelength up-conversion using optical coupling between a primary infrared (IR) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) silicon SPAD, which are fused through a silicon dioxide passivation layer. A primary IR photon induces an avalanche in the IR SPAD. The photons produced by hot-carrier recombination are subsequently sensed by the silicon SPAD, thus, allowing for on-die data processing. Because the devices are fused through their passivation layers, lattice mismatch issues between the semiconductor materials are avoided. We develop a model for calculating the conversion efficiency of the device, and use realistic device parameters to estimate up to 97% upconversion efficiency and 33% system efficiency, limited by the IR detector alone. The new scheme offers a low-cost means to manufacture dense IR-SPAD arrays, while significantly reducing their afterpulsing. We show that this high-speed compact method for upconverting IR photons is feasible and efficient.

AB - We propose and analyze a new method for single-photon wavelength up-conversion using optical coupling between a primary infrared (IR) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) silicon SPAD, which are fused through a silicon dioxide passivation layer. A primary IR photon induces an avalanche in the IR SPAD. The photons produced by hot-carrier recombination are subsequently sensed by the silicon SPAD, thus, allowing for on-die data processing. Because the devices are fused through their passivation layers, lattice mismatch issues between the semiconductor materials are avoided. We develop a model for calculating the conversion efficiency of the device, and use realistic device parameters to estimate up to 97% upconversion efficiency and 33% system efficiency, limited by the IR detector alone. The new scheme offers a low-cost means to manufacture dense IR-SPAD arrays, while significantly reducing their afterpulsing. We show that this high-speed compact method for upconverting IR photons is feasible and efficient.

KW - Avalanche photodiodes

KW - single photon detectors

KW - wavelength upconversion

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85008025485&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85008025485&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/JSTQE.2007.901884

DO - 10.1109/JSTQE.2007.901884

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85008025485

VL - 13

SP - 959

EP - 966

JO - IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

JF - IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

SN - 1077-260X

IS - 4

ER -