American Thyroid Association Statement on Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Management in Adults

Lisa A. Orloff, Sam M. Wiseman, Victor J. Bernet, Thomas J. Fahey, Ashok R. Shaha, Maisie Shindo, Samuel K. Snyder, Brendan C. Stack, John B. Sunwoo, Marilene B. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) is the most common complication following bilateral thyroid operations. Thyroid surgeons must employ strategies for minimizing and preventing post-thyroidectomy hypoPT. The objective of this American Thyroid Association Surgical Affairs Committee Statement is to provide an overview of its diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Summary: HypoPT occurs when a low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is accompanied by hypocalcemia. Risk factors for post-thyroidectomy hypoPT include bilateral thyroid operations, autoimmune thyroid disease, central neck dissection, substernal goiter, surgeon inexperience, and malabsorptive conditions. Medical and surgical strategies to minimize perioperative hypoPT include optimizing Vitamin D levels, preserving parathyroid blood supply, and autotransplanting ischemic parathyroid glands. Measurement of intraoperative or early postoperative intact PTH levels following thyroidectomy can help guide patient management. In general, a postoperative PTH level <15 pg/mL indicates increased risk for acute hypoPT. Effective management of mild to moderate potential or actual postoperative hypoPT can be achieved by administering either empiric/prophylactic oral calcium and Vitamin D, selective oral calcium, and Vitamin D based on rapid postoperative PTH level(s), or serial serum calcium levels as a guide. Monitoring for rebound hypercalcemia is necessary to avoid metabolic and renal complications. For more severe hypocalcemia, inpatient management may be necessary. Permanent hypoPT has long-term consequences for both objective and subjective well-being, and should be prevented whenever possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)830-841
Number of pages12
JournalThyroid
Volume28
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Keywords

  • Central neck
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Paresthesia
  • Thyroidectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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