Background: Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP), which has a poor visual prognosis, is common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a result of suboptimal oxygen monitoring (primary prevention). The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in APROP eyes treated with laser to eyes treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. Methods: The medical records of a cohort of APROP eyes treated with anti-VEGF (2010-2018) and another of eyes treated with laser photocoagulation (2002-2010) at the same institution in South India were reviewed retrospectively and compared. The main outcome was the proportion of eyes developing retinal detachment during resolution of acute ROP. Results: A total of 398 eyes of 199 preterm babies with APROP were included: 168 eyes were treated with photocoagulation; 230, with anti-VEGF. From 2002 to 2010, compared to the more recent cohort, babies diagnosed with APROP tended to be heavier (P < 0.001), older (P < 0.001), and exposed to fewer days of oxygen (P = 0.02). In the laser-treated cohort, 17 of 168 eyes (10%) developed retinal detachment (7, stage 5; 12, stage 4), compared with 3 of 230 (1%) in the anti-VEGF cohort (all stage 4 [P = 0.002]). Conclusions: The incidence of retinal detachment was significantly lower in eyes treated with anti-VEGF compared with laser-.treated eyes In the absence of a randomized trial, these data suggest that anti-VEGF may lead to better anatomic outcomes, although questions remain concerning dosage, timing, and risks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health