Cytomegalovirus (CMV) drug resistance mutation maps are updated with recent information for polymerase inhibitors, the terminase inhibitor letermovir and the UL97 kinase inhibitor maribavir. Newly mapped mutations and their phenotypes provide more detail on cross-resistance properties and suggest the need to expand the CMV gene regions covered in diagnostic testing. Next-generation deep sequencing technology offers a more sensitive, higher resolution view of emerging antiviral resistance and is recommended for use in clinical trials. Issues of standardization and diagnostic utility in comparison with traditional Sanger sequencing remain unresolved. Quality control is important for the accurate and reproducible detection of mutant viral populations in clinical specimens.
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