Adaptive Control of an Artificial Pancreas Using Model Identification, Adaptive Postprandial Insulin Delivery, and Heart Rate and Accelerometry as Control Inputs

Navid Resalat, Wade Hilts, Joseph El Youssef, Nichole Tyler, Jessica R. Castle, Peter G. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have varying sensitivities to insulin and also varying responses to meals and exercise. We introduce a new adaptive run-to-run model predictive control (MPC) algorithm that can be used to help people with T1D better manage their glucose levels using an artificial pancreas (AP). The algorithm adapts to individuals’ different insulin sensitivities, glycemic response to meals, and adjustment during exercise as a continuous input during free-living conditions. Methods: A new insulin sensitivity adaptation (ISA) algorithm is presented that updates each patient’s insulin sensitivity during nonmeal periods to reduce the error between the actual glucose levels and the process model. We further demonstrate how an adaptive learning postprandial hypoglycemia prevention algorithm (ALPHA) presented in the previous work can complement the ISA algorithm, and the algorithm can adapt in several days. We further show that if physical activity is incorporated as a continuous input (heart rate and accelerometry), performance is improved. The contribution of this work is the description of the ISA algorithm and the evaluation of how ISA, ALPHA, and incorporation of exercise metrics as a continuous input can impact glycemic control. Results: Incorporating ALPHA, ISA, and physical activity into the MPC improved glycemic outcome measures. The adaptive learning postprandial hypoglycemia prevention algorithm combined with ISA significantly reduced time spent in hypoglycemia by 71.7% and the total number of rescue carbs by 67.8% to 0.37% events/day/patient. Insulin sensitivity adaptation significantly reduced model-actual mismatch by 12.2% compared to an AP without ISA. Incorporating physical activity as a continuous input modestly improved time in the range 70 to 180 mg/dL during high physical activity days from 84.4% to 84.9% and reduced the percentage time in hypoglycemia by 23.8% from 2.1% to 1.6%. Conclusion: Adapting postprandial insulin delivery, insulin sensitivity, and adapting to physical exercise in an MPC-based AP systems can improve glycemic outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1053
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • adaptive
  • artificial pancreas
  • exercise
  • insulin sensitivity
  • model predictive control
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering

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