Active microelectronic chip devices which utilize controlled electrophoretic fields for multiplex DNA hybridization and other genomic applications

Michael J. Heller, Anita H. Forster, Eugene Tu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

160 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microelectronic DNA chip devices that contain planar arrays of microelectrodes have been developed for multiplex DNA hybridization and a variety of genomic research and DNA diagnostic applications. These devices are able to produce almost any desired electric field configuration on their surface. This ability to produce well-defined electric fields allows charged molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, nanobeads, and even micron scale semiconductor devices) to be electrophoretically transported to or from any microlocation on the planar surface of the device. Of key importance to the device function is the permeation layer which overcoats the microelectrodes. The permeation layer is generally a porous hydrogel material that allows water molecules and small ions (Na+, Cl-, etc.) to freely contact the microelectrode surface, but impedes the transport of the larger analytes (oligonucleotides, DNA, RNA, proteins, etc.). The permeation layer prevents the destruction of DNA at the active microelectrode surface, ameliorates the adverse effects of electrolysis products on the sensitive hybridization reactions, and serves as a porous support structure for attaching DNA probes and other molecules to the array. In order to maintain rapid transport of DNA molecules, facilitate hybriziation, and work within constrained current and voltage ranges, low conductance buffers and various electronic pulsing scenarios have also been developed. These active microelectronic array devices allow electrophoretic fields to be used to carry out accelerated DNA hybridization reactions and to improve selectivity for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), short tandem repeat (STR), and point mutation analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-164
Number of pages8
JournalELECTROPHORESIS
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

Keywords

  • DNA hybridization
  • Genomic applications
  • Microelectronic chip

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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