Activation of RAW264.7 Macrophages by Bacterial DNA and Lipopolysaccharide Increases Cell Surface DNA Binding and Internalization

Sharon L. McCoy, Stephen E. Kurtz, Frances A. Hausman, Dennis R. Trune, Robert M. Bennett, Steven H. Hefeneider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bacterial DNA containing unmethylated CpG motifs is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that interacts with host immune cells via a toll-like receptor (TLR) to induce immune responses. DNA binding and internalization into cells is independent of TLR expression, receptor-mediated, and required for cell activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immune cells to bacterial DNA affects DNA binding and internalization. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) for both 18 and 42 h resulted in a significant increase in DNA binding, whereas non-CpG ODN had no effect on DNA binding. Enhanced DNA binding was non-sequence-specific, inhibited by unlabeled DNA, showed saturation, was consistent with increased cell surface DNA receptors, and resulted in enhanced internalization of DNA. Treatment with Escherichia coli DNA or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also resulted in a significant increase in DNA binding, but treatment with interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had no effect on DNA binding. Soluble factors produced in response to treatment with CpG ODN or LPS did not affect DNA binding. These studies demonstrate that one consequence of activating the host innate immune response by bacterial infection is enhanced binding and internalization of DNA. During this period of increased DNA internalization, RAW264.7 cells were hypo-responsive to continued stimulation by CpG ODN, as assessed by tumor necrosis factor-α activity. We speculate the biological significance of increasing DNA binding and internalization following interaction with bacterial PAMPs may provide a mechanism to limit an ongoing immune inflammatory response by enhancing clearance of bacterial DNA from the extracellular environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17217-17223
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume279
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 23 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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