Accuracy of flow convergence estimates of mitral regurgitant flow rates obtained by use of multiple color flow Doppler M-mode aliasing boundaries: An experimental animal study

Jun Zhang, Michael Jones, Robin Shandas, Lilliam M. Valdes-Cruz, Azucena Murillo, Izumi Yamada, Soon U. Kang, Robert G. Weintraub, Takahiro Shiota, David Sahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The proximal flow convergence method of multiplying color Doppler aliasing velocity by flow convergence surface area has yielded a new means of quantifying flow rate by noninvasively derived measurements. Unlike previous methods of visualizing the turbulent jet of mitral regurgitation on color flow Doppler mapping, flow convergence methods are less influenced by machine factors because of the systematic structure of the laminar flow convergence region. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the flow rate calculated from the first aliasing boundary of color flow Doppler imaging is dependent on orifice size, flow rate, aliasing velocity and therefore on the distance from the orifice chosen for measurement. In this study we calculated the regurgitant flow rates acquired by use of multiple proximal aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces and assessed the effect of distances of measurement and aliasing velocities on the calculated regurgitant flow rate. Six sheep with surgically induced mitral regurgitation were studied. The distances from the mitral valve leaflet M-mode line to the first, second, and third sequential aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces were measured and converted to the regurgitant flow rates calculated by applying the hemispheric flow equation and averaging instantaneous flow rates throughout systole. The flow rates that were calculated from the first, second, and third aliasing boundaries correlated well with the actual regurgitant flow rates (r = 0.91 to 0.96). The mean percentage error from the actual flow rates were 151% for the first aliasing boundary, 7% for the second aliasing boundary, and -43% for the third aliasing boundary; and the association between aliasing velocities and calculated flow rates indicates an inverse relationship, which suggests that in this model, there were limited velocity-distance combinations that fit with a hemispheric assumption for flow convergence geometry. The second aliasing boundary with an aliasing velocity, of 102 cm/sec, (which was achieved by use of a 4 kHz pulse repetition frequency, a 3.75 MHz transducer, and no color baseline shift), provided the closest fit to the actual regurgitant flow rates (r = 0.99; y = 0.95x + 0.07). The averaged calculated flow rates from all aliasing velocities also resulted in excellent correlation (r = 0.97; y = 0.99x + 0.5). A hemispheric flow convergence method that is based on color Doppler M-mode echocardiography is a feasible and automatable method for quantifying mitral regurgitant rate. the inversely changing relationship between the calculated regurgitant flow rates and the aliasing velocities in our study suggests that the shape of aliasing boundary may change from "elliptic paraboloid" to a more "plate-like" flattened hemielliptic configuration when flow approaches the orifice. With knowledge of changing flow geometry factored into this method and the ability to perform this calculation at multiple velocity-distance combinations to average this data, the accuracy of this method should increase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-458
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume125
Issue number2 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes

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Color
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Systole
Transducers
Mitral Valve
Echocardiography
Pulse
Sheep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Accuracy of flow convergence estimates of mitral regurgitant flow rates obtained by use of multiple color flow Doppler M-mode aliasing boundaries : An experimental animal study. / Zhang, Jun; Jones, Michael; Shandas, Robin; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam M.; Murillo, Azucena; Yamada, Izumi; Kang, Soon U.; Weintraub, Robert G.; Shiota, Takahiro; Sahn, David.

In: American Heart Journal, Vol. 125, No. 2 PART 1, 1993, p. 449-458.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, J, Jones, M, Shandas, R, Valdes-Cruz, LM, Murillo, A, Yamada, I, Kang, SU, Weintraub, RG, Shiota, T & Sahn, D 1993, 'Accuracy of flow convergence estimates of mitral regurgitant flow rates obtained by use of multiple color flow Doppler M-mode aliasing boundaries: An experimental animal study', American Heart Journal, vol. 125, no. 2 PART 1, pp. 449-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(93)90025-5
Zhang, Jun ; Jones, Michael ; Shandas, Robin ; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam M. ; Murillo, Azucena ; Yamada, Izumi ; Kang, Soon U. ; Weintraub, Robert G. ; Shiota, Takahiro ; Sahn, David. / Accuracy of flow convergence estimates of mitral regurgitant flow rates obtained by use of multiple color flow Doppler M-mode aliasing boundaries : An experimental animal study. In: American Heart Journal. 1993 ; Vol. 125, No. 2 PART 1. pp. 449-458.
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abstract = "The proximal flow convergence method of multiplying color Doppler aliasing velocity by flow convergence surface area has yielded a new means of quantifying flow rate by noninvasively derived measurements. Unlike previous methods of visualizing the turbulent jet of mitral regurgitation on color flow Doppler mapping, flow convergence methods are less influenced by machine factors because of the systematic structure of the laminar flow convergence region. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the flow rate calculated from the first aliasing boundary of color flow Doppler imaging is dependent on orifice size, flow rate, aliasing velocity and therefore on the distance from the orifice chosen for measurement. In this study we calculated the regurgitant flow rates acquired by use of multiple proximal aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces and assessed the effect of distances of measurement and aliasing velocities on the calculated regurgitant flow rate. Six sheep with surgically induced mitral regurgitation were studied. The distances from the mitral valve leaflet M-mode line to the first, second, and third sequential aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces were measured and converted to the regurgitant flow rates calculated by applying the hemispheric flow equation and averaging instantaneous flow rates throughout systole. The flow rates that were calculated from the first, second, and third aliasing boundaries correlated well with the actual regurgitant flow rates (r = 0.91 to 0.96). The mean percentage error from the actual flow rates were 151{\%} for the first aliasing boundary, 7{\%} for the second aliasing boundary, and -43{\%} for the third aliasing boundary; and the association between aliasing velocities and calculated flow rates indicates an inverse relationship, which suggests that in this model, there were limited velocity-distance combinations that fit with a hemispheric assumption for flow convergence geometry. The second aliasing boundary with an aliasing velocity, of 102 cm/sec, (which was achieved by use of a 4 kHz pulse repetition frequency, a 3.75 MHz transducer, and no color baseline shift), provided the closest fit to the actual regurgitant flow rates (r = 0.99; y = 0.95x + 0.07). The averaged calculated flow rates from all aliasing velocities also resulted in excellent correlation (r = 0.97; y = 0.99x + 0.5). A hemispheric flow convergence method that is based on color Doppler M-mode echocardiography is a feasible and automatable method for quantifying mitral regurgitant rate. the inversely changing relationship between the calculated regurgitant flow rates and the aliasing velocities in our study suggests that the shape of aliasing boundary may change from {"}elliptic paraboloid{"} to a more {"}plate-like{"} flattened hemielliptic configuration when flow approaches the orifice. With knowledge of changing flow geometry factored into this method and the ability to perform this calculation at multiple velocity-distance combinations to average this data, the accuracy of this method should increase.",
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