A troubled beginning: Evolving concepts of an old arrhythmia

Sam Hanon, Michael Shapiro, Paul Schweitzer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    4 Scopus citations


    The development of the sphygmograph in the nineteenth century marked the beginning of graphic registration of the arterial and venous pulse. Mackenzie, among other investigators, used this technique to study cardiac rhythm. In the early 20th century, Einthoven developed the electrocardiogram, which replaced the less sophisticated arterial and venous registrations of cardiac events and allowed for more detailed arrhythmia analysis. Interestingly, the early study of cardiac arrhythmias was obscured by misinterpretation. Specifically, atrial fibrillation stands out as a rhythm that was extensively studied though misconstrued in its early history. What follows is an in-depth consideration of the original investigations and evolving theories of this important arrhythmia.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)213-217
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Jul 2005


    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Einthoven
    • Electrocardiogram
    • History
    • Mechanism

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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