A Single Dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Elicits High Antibody Responses in Individuals with Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection Comparable to That of Two-Dose-Vaccinated, SARS-CoV-2-Infection-Naïve Individuals: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopian Health Workers

Tesfaye Gelanew, Andargachew Mulu, Markos Abebe, Timothy A. Bates, Liya Wassie, Mekonnen Teferi, Dessalegn Fentahun, Aynalem Alemu, Frehiwot Tamiru, Gebeyehu Assefa, Abebe Genetu Bayih, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Adane Mihret, Alemseged Abdissa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Single-dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose for those individuals in countries with limited vaccine supply. However, these important data are limited to developed nations. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study among Ethiopian healthcare workers who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We compared the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 39 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 24 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P.I.), who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across the two post-vaccination time points (at 8 to 12 weeks post single dose and two dose vaccinations). We noted that the GMT (1632.16) in naïve participants at 8–12 weeks post first dose were comparable to the GMT (1674.94) observed in P.I. participants prior to vaccination. Interestingly, P.I. participants had significantly higher antibody titers compared to naïve participants, after both the first (GMT, 4913.50 vs. 1632.16) and second doses (GMT, 9804.60 vs. 6607.30). Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar, if not higher, antibody responses to those of two-dose-vaccinated naïve individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number859
JournalVaccines
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
  • dose
  • naïve
  • prior infection
  • RBD
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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