Hypertension as well as hypotension can be harmful to a newly transplanted renal allograft. Elevated blood pressure is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular death, which is a frequent occurrence despite successful renal transplantation. Renal artery stenosis, immunosuppressive drugs, chronic rejection, retained native kidneys, and excessive extracellular fluid volume may all contribute to post-transplant hypertension. Antihypertensive agents are widely used in the management of post-transplant hypertension. Careful clinical judgement and knowledge of the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reaction profiles, potential contraindications, and drug-drug interactions of antihypertensive agents are important when therapy with antihypertensive drugs is initiated in renal transplant recipients. Since blood pressure elevation in any individual is determined by a large number of hormonal and neuronal systems, the effect of antihypertensive agents on the allograft should be considered a critical factor in the management of hypertension in renal transplant recipients. Most renal transplant recipients have other risk factors for premature cardiovascular death such as diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and ischaemic heart disease. Initial antihypertensive therapy should be tailored individually according to the patient's risk factors. A realistic therapeutic goal for blood pressure management in the initial postoperative state is a systolic blood pressure < 160 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg with lower pressure targets becoming applicable late post transplantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)