A multifunctional therapy approach for cancer: Targeting Raf1- Mediated inhibition of cell motility, growth, and interaction with the microenvironment

Limin Zhang, Abhinandan Pattanayak, Wenqi Li, Hyun Kyung Ko, Graham Fowler, Ryan Gordon, Raymond Bergan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Prostate cancer cells move from their primary site of origin, interact with a distant microenvironment, grow, and thereby cause death. It had heretofore not been possible to selectively inhibit cancer cell motility. Our group has recently shown that inhibition of intracellular activation of Raf1 with the small-molecule therapeutic KBU2046 permits, for the first time, selective inhibition of cell motility. We hypothesized that simultaneous disruption of multiple distinct functions that drive progression of prostate cancer to induce death would result in advanced disease control. Using a murine orthotopic implantation model of human prostate cancer metastasis, we demonstrate that combined treatment with KBU2046 and docetaxel retains docetaxel's antitumor action, but provides improved inhibition of metastasis, compared with monotherapy. KBU2046 does not interfere with hormone therapy, inclusive of enzalutamide-mediated inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) function and cell growth inhibition, and inclusive of the ability of castration to inhibit LNCaP-AR cell outgrowth in mice. Cell movement is necessary for osteoclast-mediated bone degradation. KBU2046 inhibits Raf1 and its downstream activation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 in osteoclasts, inhibiting cytoskeleton rearrangement, resorptive cavity formation, and bone destruction in vitro, with improved effects observed when the bone microenvironment is chemically modified by pretreatment with zoledronic acid. Using a murine cardiac injection model of human prostate cancer bone destruction quantified by CT, KBU2046 plus zoledronic exhibit improved inhibitory efficacy, compared with monotherapy. The combined disruption of pathways that drive cell movement, interaction with bone, and growth constitutes a multifunctional targeting strategy that provides advanced disease control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-51
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular cancer therapeutics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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