Rat granulosa cell-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (BPs) have been found subject to biphasic dose-dependent regulation by FSH under in vitro circumstances. Since cAMP may play an intermediary role in FSH hormonal action, we have undertaken to characterize the A kinase-mediated regulation of the elaboration of IGFBPs by cultured rat granulosa cells. Treatment with increasing concentrations of prostaglandin E2 or choleragen, both established cAMP-generating agonists, produced biphasic dose-dependent regulation of the release of the major 28-29 kilodalton (kDa) IGFBP species while promoting the release of their minor 24 (and 19) kDa counterparts. Similar effects were noted for other cAMP-generating agonists including vasoactive intestinal peptide and forskolin (a potent activator of adenylate cyclase). Moreover, concomitant treatment with a functionally inert low dose (10-7 M) of forskolin, substantially potentiated the FSH (10 ng/ml)-mediated inhibition of the elaboration of the 28-29 kDa IGFBPs. Application of decreasing dilutions of the invasive adenylate cyclase toxin of bordetella pertussis (but not of an inactive mutant strain) yielded monophasic dose-dependent modulation of the release of the 28-29 kDa IGFBPs while effecting biphasic regulation of the 24 kDa moiety. Concurrent treatment with l-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (a potent inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity) at the 10-4 M level resulted in profound (P < 0.05) inhibition of the (low dose) FSH (3 ng/ml)-supported accumulation of the major 28-29 kDa IGFBP species, an effect associated with modest (2.5-fold) induction (P < 0.05) of the minor 24 kDa IGFBP moiety. Lastly, provision of increasing concentrations of nondegradable lipophilic analogs of cAMP (i.e. (Bu)2cAMP and 8-bromoadenosine cAMP resulted in biphasic dose-dependent modulation of the release of the major 28-29 kDa IGFBP doublet while producing an increase in the accumulation of the minor 24 kDa IGFBP species. Taken together, these observations suggest that the ability of low dose FSH to stimulate and of high dose FSH to inhibit the elaboration of the 28-29 kDa IGFBP species may entail activation of the A kinase transduction pathway. Similar conclusions appear to apply for the ability of FSH to regulate (albeit at a lower response sensitivity level) the biphasic elaboration of the 24 kDa IGFBP moiety. As such, these observations point out the disparate response sensitivities of distinct IGFBP species, thereby suggesting a novel potent mechanism through which FSH may determine the relative distribution pattern of granulosa cell-derived IGFBPs and the consequent overall IGF responsiveness of this cell type.
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