A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms: Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes

Craig Newgard, Brittany J. Sanchez, Eileen M. Bulger, Karen Brasel, Adam Byers, Jason E. Buick, Kellie L. Sheehan, Frank X. Guyette, Richard V. King, Jorge Mena-Munoz, Joseph P. Minei, Robert H. Schmicker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives Relatively little is known about the context and location of firearm injury events. Using a prospective cohort of trauma patients, we describe and compare severe firearm injury events to other violent and nonviolent injury mechanisms regarding incident location, proximity to home, time of day, spatial clustering, and outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of injured children and adults with hypotension or Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, injured by one of four primary injury mechanisms (firearm, stabbing, assault, and motor vehicle collision [MVC]) who were transported by emergency medical services to a Level I or II trauma center in 10 regions of the United States and Canada from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used descriptive statistics and geospatial analyses to compare the injury groups, distance from home, outcomes, and spatial clustering. Results There were 2,079 persons available for analysis, including 506 (24.3%) firearm injuries, 297 (14.3%) stabbings, 339 (16.3%) assaults, and 950 (45.7%) MVCs. Firearm injuries resulted in the highest proportion of serious injuries (66.3%), early critical resources (75.3%), and in-hospital mortality (53.5%). Injury events occurring within 1 mile of a patient's home included 53.9% of stabbings, 49.2% of firearm events, 41.3% of assaults, and 20.0% of MVCs; the non-MVC events frequently occurred at home. While there was geospatial clustering, 94.4% of firearm events occurred outside of geographic clusters. Conclusions Severe firearm events tend to occur within a patient's own neighborhood, often at home, and generally outside of geospatial clusters. Public health efforts should focus on the home in all types of neighborhoods to reduce firearm violence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)554-565
Number of pages12
JournalAcademic Emergency Medicine
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

Firearms
Wounds and Injuries
Cluster Analysis
Group Homes
Glasgow Coma Scale
Trauma Centers
Emergency Medical Services
Motor Vehicles
Hospital Mortality
Violence
Hypotension
Canada
Public Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms : Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes. / Newgard, Craig; Sanchez, Brittany J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Brasel, Karen; Byers, Adam; Buick, Jason E.; Sheehan, Kellie L.; Guyette, Frank X.; King, Richard V.; Mena-Munoz, Jorge; Minei, Joseph P.; Schmicker, Robert H.

In: Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 5, 01.05.2016, p. 554-565.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Newgard, C, Sanchez, BJ, Bulger, EM, Brasel, K, Byers, A, Buick, JE, Sheehan, KL, Guyette, FX, King, RV, Mena-Munoz, J, Minei, JP & Schmicker, RH 2016, 'A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms: Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes', Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 554-565. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.12930
Newgard, Craig ; Sanchez, Brittany J. ; Bulger, Eileen M. ; Brasel, Karen ; Byers, Adam ; Buick, Jason E. ; Sheehan, Kellie L. ; Guyette, Frank X. ; King, Richard V. ; Mena-Munoz, Jorge ; Minei, Joseph P. ; Schmicker, Robert H. / A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms : Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes. In: Academic Emergency Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 23, No. 5. pp. 554-565.
@article{27e245d5f3734004b9d954ae7103540c,
title = "A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms: Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes",
abstract = "Objectives Relatively little is known about the context and location of firearm injury events. Using a prospective cohort of trauma patients, we describe and compare severe firearm injury events to other violent and nonviolent injury mechanisms regarding incident location, proximity to home, time of day, spatial clustering, and outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of injured children and adults with hypotension or Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, injured by one of four primary injury mechanisms (firearm, stabbing, assault, and motor vehicle collision [MVC]) who were transported by emergency medical services to a Level I or II trauma center in 10 regions of the United States and Canada from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used descriptive statistics and geospatial analyses to compare the injury groups, distance from home, outcomes, and spatial clustering. Results There were 2,079 persons available for analysis, including 506 (24.3{\%}) firearm injuries, 297 (14.3{\%}) stabbings, 339 (16.3{\%}) assaults, and 950 (45.7{\%}) MVCs. Firearm injuries resulted in the highest proportion of serious injuries (66.3{\%}), early critical resources (75.3{\%}), and in-hospital mortality (53.5{\%}). Injury events occurring within 1 mile of a patient's home included 53.9{\%} of stabbings, 49.2{\%} of firearm events, 41.3{\%} of assaults, and 20.0{\%} of MVCs; the non-MVC events frequently occurred at home. While there was geospatial clustering, 94.4{\%} of firearm events occurred outside of geographic clusters. Conclusions Severe firearm events tend to occur within a patient's own neighborhood, often at home, and generally outside of geospatial clusters. Public health efforts should focus on the home in all types of neighborhoods to reduce firearm violence.",
author = "Craig Newgard and Sanchez, {Brittany J.} and Bulger, {Eileen M.} and Karen Brasel and Adam Byers and Buick, {Jason E.} and Sheehan, {Kellie L.} and Guyette, {Frank X.} and King, {Richard V.} and Jorge Mena-Munoz and Minei, {Joseph P.} and Schmicker, {Robert H.}",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/acem.12930",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "554--565",
journal = "Academic Emergency Medicine",
issn = "1069-6563",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Geospatial Analysis of Severe Firearm Injuries Compared to Other Injury Mechanisms

T2 - Event Characteristics, Location, Timing, and Outcomes

AU - Newgard, Craig

AU - Sanchez, Brittany J.

AU - Bulger, Eileen M.

AU - Brasel, Karen

AU - Byers, Adam

AU - Buick, Jason E.

AU - Sheehan, Kellie L.

AU - Guyette, Frank X.

AU - King, Richard V.

AU - Mena-Munoz, Jorge

AU - Minei, Joseph P.

AU - Schmicker, Robert H.

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Objectives Relatively little is known about the context and location of firearm injury events. Using a prospective cohort of trauma patients, we describe and compare severe firearm injury events to other violent and nonviolent injury mechanisms regarding incident location, proximity to home, time of day, spatial clustering, and outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of injured children and adults with hypotension or Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, injured by one of four primary injury mechanisms (firearm, stabbing, assault, and motor vehicle collision [MVC]) who were transported by emergency medical services to a Level I or II trauma center in 10 regions of the United States and Canada from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used descriptive statistics and geospatial analyses to compare the injury groups, distance from home, outcomes, and spatial clustering. Results There were 2,079 persons available for analysis, including 506 (24.3%) firearm injuries, 297 (14.3%) stabbings, 339 (16.3%) assaults, and 950 (45.7%) MVCs. Firearm injuries resulted in the highest proportion of serious injuries (66.3%), early critical resources (75.3%), and in-hospital mortality (53.5%). Injury events occurring within 1 mile of a patient's home included 53.9% of stabbings, 49.2% of firearm events, 41.3% of assaults, and 20.0% of MVCs; the non-MVC events frequently occurred at home. While there was geospatial clustering, 94.4% of firearm events occurred outside of geographic clusters. Conclusions Severe firearm events tend to occur within a patient's own neighborhood, often at home, and generally outside of geospatial clusters. Public health efforts should focus on the home in all types of neighborhoods to reduce firearm violence.

AB - Objectives Relatively little is known about the context and location of firearm injury events. Using a prospective cohort of trauma patients, we describe and compare severe firearm injury events to other violent and nonviolent injury mechanisms regarding incident location, proximity to home, time of day, spatial clustering, and outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of injured children and adults with hypotension or Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, injured by one of four primary injury mechanisms (firearm, stabbing, assault, and motor vehicle collision [MVC]) who were transported by emergency medical services to a Level I or II trauma center in 10 regions of the United States and Canada from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used descriptive statistics and geospatial analyses to compare the injury groups, distance from home, outcomes, and spatial clustering. Results There were 2,079 persons available for analysis, including 506 (24.3%) firearm injuries, 297 (14.3%) stabbings, 339 (16.3%) assaults, and 950 (45.7%) MVCs. Firearm injuries resulted in the highest proportion of serious injuries (66.3%), early critical resources (75.3%), and in-hospital mortality (53.5%). Injury events occurring within 1 mile of a patient's home included 53.9% of stabbings, 49.2% of firearm events, 41.3% of assaults, and 20.0% of MVCs; the non-MVC events frequently occurred at home. While there was geospatial clustering, 94.4% of firearm events occurred outside of geographic clusters. Conclusions Severe firearm events tend to occur within a patient's own neighborhood, often at home, and generally outside of geospatial clusters. Public health efforts should focus on the home in all types of neighborhoods to reduce firearm violence.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84963595069&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84963595069&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/acem.12930

DO - 10.1111/acem.12930

M3 - Article

C2 - 26836571

AN - SCOPUS:84963595069

VL - 23

SP - 554

EP - 565

JO - Academic Emergency Medicine

JF - Academic Emergency Medicine

SN - 1069-6563

IS - 5

ER -