Because mutations in envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses or in their cell surface receptors can eliminate function by multiple mechanisms, it has been difficult to unambiguously identify sites for their interactions by site-directed mutagenesis. Recently, we developed a gain-of-function approach to overcome this problem. Our strategy relies on the fact that feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A- MLV) have closely related gp70 surface envelope glycoproteins and use related Na+-dependent phosphate symporters, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as their receptors. We previously observed that FeLV-B/A-MLV envelope glycoprotein chimeras spliced between the variable regions VRA and VRB were unable to use Pit1 or Pit2 as a receptor but could efficiently use specific Pit1/Pit2 chimeras. The latter study suggested that the VRA of A-MLV and FeLV-B functionally interact with the presumptive extracellular loops 4 and 5 (ECL4 and -5) of their respective receptors, whereas VRB interacts with ECL2. We also found that FeLV-B gp70 residues F60 and P61 and A-MLV residues Y60 and V61 in the first disulfide-bonded loop of VRA were important for functional interaction with the receptor's ECL4 or -5. We have now extended this approach to identify additional VRA and VRB residues that are involved in receptor recognition. Our studies imply that FeLV-B VRA residues F60 and P61 interact with the Pit1 ECL5 region, whereas VRA residues 66 to 78 interact with Pit1 ECL4. Correspondingly, A-MLV VRA residues Y60 and V61 interact with the Pit2 ECL5 region, whereas residues 66 to 78 interact with Pit2 ECL4. Similar studies that focused on the gp70 VRB implicated residues 129 to 139 as contributing to specific interactions with the receptor ECL2. These results identify three regions of gp70 that interact in a specific manner with distinct portions of their receptors, thereby providing a map of the functionally interacting surfaces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science