Background: Survival rates remain low after hemorrhage-induced traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA). Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major cause of potentially survivable trauma death. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) at the thoracic aorta (Zone 1) can limit subdiaphragmatic blood loss and allow for IV fluid resuscitation when intrinsic cardiac activity is still present. Selective Aortic Arch Perfusion (SAAP) combines thoracic aortic balloon hemorrhage control with intra-aortic oxygenated perfusion to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) when cardiac arrest has occurred. Methods and findings: Male Yorkshire Landrace cross swine (80.0 ± 6.0 kg) underwent anesthesia, instrumentation for monitoring, and splenectomy. TCA was induced by laparoscopic liver lobe resection combined with arterial catheter blood withdrawal to achieve a sustained systolic blood pressure <10 mmHg, cardiac arrest. After 3 min of arrest, swine were allocated to one of three interventions: (1) REBOA plus 4 units of IV fresh whole blood (FWB), (2) SAAP with oxygenated lactated Ringer’s (LR), 1,600 mL/2 min, or (3) SAAP with oxygenated FWB 1,600 mL/2 min. Primary endpoint was survival to the end of 60 min of resuscitation, a simulated prehospital phase. Thirty animals were allocated to 3 groups (10 per group)—5 protocol exclusions resulted in a total of 35 animals being used. Baseline measurements and time to cardiac arrest were not different amongst groups. ROSC was achieved in 0/10 (0%, 95% CI 0.00–30.9) REBOA, 6/10 (60%, 95% CI 26.2–87.8) SAAP-LR and 10/10 (100%, 95% CI 69.2–100.0) SAAP-FWB animals, p < 0.001. Survival to end of simulated 60-minute prehospital resuscitation was 0/10 (0%, 95% CI 0.00–30.9) for REBOA, 1/10 (10%, 95% CI 0.25–44.5) for SAAP-LR and 9/10 (90%, 95% CI 55.5–99.7) for SAAP-FWB, p < 0.001. Total FWB infusion volume was similar for REBOA (2,452 ± 0 mL) and SAAP-FWB (2,250 ± 594 mL). This study was undertaken in laboratory conditions, and as such may have practical limitations when applied clinically. Cardiac arrest in this study was defined by intra-aortic pressure monitoring that is not feasible in clinical practice, and as such limits the generalizability of findings. Clinical trials are needed to determine if the beneficial effects of SAAP-FWB observed in this laboratory study will translate into improved survival in clinical practice. Conclusions: SAAP conferred a superior short-term survival over REBOA in this large animal model of hemorrhage-induced traumatic cardiac arrest with NCTH. SAAP using an oxygen-carrying perfusate was more effective in this study than non-oxygen carrying solutions in TCA. SAAP can effect ROSC from hemorrhage-induced electrocardiographic asystole in large swine.
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