A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: the Portland arithmetic stress task

Rachel Atchley, Roger Ellingson, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Barry Oken

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages277-284
Number of pages8
JournalStress
Volume20
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2017

Fingerprint

Evoked Potentials
Electroencephalography
Heart Rate
Blood Pressure
Respiratory Rate
Hydrocortisone
Autonomic Nervous System
Acoustics
Brain
Research

Keywords

  • cognitive stressor
  • event-related potential
  • feedback-related negativity
  • Stress reactivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Physiology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies : the Portland arithmetic stress task. / Atchley, Rachel; Ellingson, Roger; Klee, Daniel; Memmott, Tabatha; Oken, Barry.

In: Stress, Vol. 20, No. 3, 04.05.2017, p. 277-284.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Atchley R, Ellingson R, Klee D, Memmott T, Oken B. A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: the Portland arithmetic stress task. Stress. 2017 May 4;20(3):277-284. Available from, DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2017.1335300
Atchley, Rachel ; Ellingson, Roger ; Klee, Daniel ; Memmott, Tabatha ; Oken, Barry. / A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies : the Portland arithmetic stress task. In: Stress. 2017 ; Vol. 20, No. 3. pp. 277-284
@article{9f417a2c2cd74e67a6140783f8991333,
title = "A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: the Portland arithmetic stress task",
abstract = "In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.",
keywords = "cognitive stressor, event-related potential, feedback-related negativity, Stress reactivity",
author = "Rachel Atchley and Roger Ellingson and Daniel Klee and Tabatha Memmott and Barry Oken",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1080/10253890.2017.1335300",
volume = "20",
pages = "277--284",
journal = "Stress",
issn = "1025-3890",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies

T2 - Stress

AU - Atchley,Rachel

AU - Ellingson,Roger

AU - Klee,Daniel

AU - Memmott,Tabatha

AU - Oken,Barry

PY - 2017/5/4

Y1 - 2017/5/4

N2 - In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

AB - In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

KW - cognitive stressor

KW - event-related potential

KW - feedback-related negativity

KW - Stress reactivity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85020982405&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85020982405&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10253890.2017.1335300

DO - 10.1080/10253890.2017.1335300

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 277

EP - 284

JO - Stress

JF - Stress

SN - 1025-3890

IS - 3

ER -