A brief version of the questionnaire of olfactory disorders in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

Jose L. Mattos, Campbell Edwards, Rodney J. Schlosser, Madison Hyer, Jess C. Mace, Timothy L. Smith, Zachary M. Soler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Background: The Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders‒Negative Statements (QOD-NS) is a valuable instrument in the measurement of olfactory-specific quality of life (QOL). In the clinical setting, patients can be overwhelmed with the time required to complete questionnaires. Our objective was to develop a brief version of the QOD-NS to streamline clinical care and research. Methods: QOD-NS scores from 221 subjects were used to determine which subset of the 17 QOD-NS questions best correlated with total and subdomain QOD-NS scores. An initial pool of 11 questions was made by removing items with ρ < 0.80 to their respective subdomain scores. Next, 500 bootstrapped samples were taken. On each sampe, an all-subsets regression was performed with total QOD-NS scores and QOD-NS subdomain scores as the outcomes. From this, our “top” and “bottom” 10 subsets were identified based on mean r2 value, representation in bootstrap analysis, and number of items. Results: All of our top subsets had excellent correlation with total and subdomain QOD-NS scores (mean r2 > 0.90). Our top choice has 7 total questions, is representative of all subdomains, has a mean r2 = 0.92, and was represented in 323 of our 500 bootstrapped samples. The worst-performing subset has 5 items, mean r2 = 0.81, and was represented in only 1 bootstrapped sample. Conclusions: Using less than half of the questions in the QOD-NS, excellent correlations with both total and domain-specific scores are achieved. A brief version of the QOD-NS may prove useful in future clinical and research settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1144-1150
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • olfaction
  • quality of life
  • questionnaire of olfactory disorders
  • sinusitis
  • smell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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