A 25 year perspective on advances in the pathologic assessment and diagnosis of urologic cancers

Donna E. Hansel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Over the past 25 years, diagnostic categories in genitourinary pathology have changed dramatically. Prostate cancer reporting incorporated numerous new variant categories, recognized the importance of intraductal carcinoma, and introduced the concept of Grade Groups. Pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer not only added new variant categories, but also modified the grading of non-invasive urothelial neoplasms and refined staging definitions. Kidney cancer classification expanded from a handful of diagnostic categories to a broad array of additional cancer types defined by unique immunohistochemical and molecular findings. Segregation of penile carcinoma by human papillomavirus status more accurately reflected pathogenesis and helped improve prediction of cancer behavior. Testicular pathology research advanced understanding of germ cell tumor subtypes and their impact on patient outcomes. Finally, adrenal gland pathology has evolved to incorporate a broader recognition of morphological variation and risk factors associated with tumor progression. Taken together, changes in pathology over the past quarter century have revolutionized our approach to genitourinary cancers. This review seeks to highlight some of the many significant changes in genitourinary pathology that have occurred during the past 25 years and emphasize impacts on clinical outcomes or therapy, as relevant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)582-594
Number of pages13
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Adrenal cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Diagnosis
  • Kidney cancer
  • Pathology
  • Penile cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Testis cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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