A 2 × 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport: Evidence for Factorial Invariance, Temporal Stability, and External Validity

David E. Conroy, Andrew J. Elliot, Scott M. Hofer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

215 Scopus citations

Abstract

Achievement goals in sport have traditionally been defined according to the definition of competence alone (i.e., mastery/task, performance/ego). Emerging research and theory from the academic domain indicates that the utility of the achievement goal construct can be enhanced when the valence (i.e., approach, avoidance) of goals is also considered in conjunction with the definition of competence. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of scores for mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals from a measure of achievement goals in sport. The a priori 2 × 2 model fit the data better than any of the plausible alternative models. In a series of longitudinal factorial invariance and latent growth curve analyses, scores for the four subscales exhibited structural invariance, and both differential and latent mean stability over a 21-day period. Achievement goal scores conformed to theoretical predictions regarding their relationship with fear-of-failure scores. The AGQ-S would be an appropriate instrument for future research using the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals in sport, particularly for experimental/intervention research on change processes associated with achievement goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)456-476
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

Keywords

  • Competence
  • Longitudinal
  • Measurement
  • Motivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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