2D time-of-flight MR angiography using concatenated saturation bands for determining direction of flow in the intracranial vessels

G. M. Nesbit, J. K. DeMarco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


We prospectively studied 15 patients to assess 2D time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with concatenated saturation bands for determining the direction of intracranial blood flow. This MRA sequence was compared to T2-weighted spin-echo MRI, 3D-TOF MRA, and intra-arterial angiography (IAA) as regards demonstration of vessels and determination of the direction of flow in the circle of Willis and its branches. The 2D-TOF MRA sequence demonstrated flow in 98.5% vessel segments identified on IAA, 3D-TOF demonstrating 92% and spin-echo images 77%. The direction of flow shown on the 2D-TOF sequence was correct in 94% when compared to conventional angiography, the remaining six segments not demonstrating flow. In ten patients, the flow abnormalities demonstrated by this MRA technique provided clinical information similar to that of conventional angiography in nine, but it was incomplete in three, and misleading in one. Slow retrograde flow in ophthalmic artery collaterals and differentiation of arteries and veins presented some problems. 2D-TOF MRA with concatenated saturation bands provides flow direction information using widely available, easily applicable TOF techniques, and can be a useful adjunct to MRI and MRA if information on flow direction is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)461-468
Number of pages8
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 30 1997



  • Blood flow dynamics
  • Cerebral angiography
  • Circle of Willis
  • Digital subtraction angiography
  • Magnetic resonance angiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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